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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:26 pm 
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Has been very unedifying since the squad was announced.

How about you guys get behind the players?


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:28 pm 
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I hear that Lions fans that go to the tours aren't twats but I'm unconvinced.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:29 pm 
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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eam eu civibus quaerendum, est persecuti mnesarchum cu. Assum referrentur in sed, has et adipisci mediocritatem, id commune scribentur ius. In oratio praesent vix, per platonem persequeris eu, mei no oratio lucilius perpetua. Quo feugiat indoctum at, rebum recteque usu ei. Minim paulo eripuit ea vix, cu dolorum periculis mei, ea habemus scripserit has. Sea cu feugait reprimique, his in aliquip vivendo percipit.

Ea vel senserit gubergren moderatius, nec explicari repudiare ad, odio docendi postulant cu mea. Vix labitur virtute constituam et. Mea quas facilisis ad, ne pri quodsi facilis urbanitas. Sonet fabellas duo an, solet nemore eu qui. Ad sin t saepe nec. Te falli admodum scribentu


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:34 pm 
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Argyria
For many years, this man had used nose drops containing silver. His skin biopsy showed silver deposits in the dermis, confirming the diagnosis of argyria.
Generalized argyria in a 92-year-old male.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Dermatology
ICD-10 T56.8, L81.8 (ILDS L81.854)
ICD-9-CM 985.8
DiseasesDB 29790
eMedicine derm/595
MeSH D001129
Orphanet 60014
[edit on Wikidata]
Argyria or argyrosis (from Ancient Greek: ἄργυρος argyros silver) is a condition caused by excessive exposure to chemical compounds of the element silver, or to silver dust.[1] The most dramatic symptom of argyria is that the skin turns blue or bluish-grey. It may take the form of generalized argyria or local argyria. Generalized argyria affects large areas over much of the visible surface of the body. Local argyria shows in limited regions of the body, such as patches of skin, parts of the mucous membrane or the conjunctiva.

The terms argyria and argyrosis have long been used interchangeably,[2] with argyria being used more frequently. Argyrosis has been used particularly in referring to argyria of the conjunctiva, but the usage has never been consistent and cannot be relied on except where it has been explicitly specified.[3]

Cause Edit

Colloidal silver Edit
See also: Medical uses of silver
Medical authorities do not recommend colloidal silver, because of its lack of proven effectiveness and the risk of side effects.[4][5]

Pathophysiology Edit

In animals and humans chronic intake of silver products commonly leads to gradual accumulation of silver compounds in various parts of the body.[4] As in photography (where silver is useful because of its sensitivity to light), exposure of pale or colourless silver compounds to sunlight decomposes them to silver metal or silver sulfides. Commonly these products deposit as microscopic particles in the skin, in effect a dark pigment. This condition is known as argyria or argyrosis.

Chronic intake also may lead to silver pigments depositing in other organs exposed to light, particularly the eyes.[6] In the conjunctiva this is not generally harmful, but it also may affect the lens, leading to serious effects.

Localised argyria often results from topical use of substances containing silver, such as some kinds of eye drops. Generalized argyria results from chronically swallowing or inhaling silver compounds, either for home medicines purposes, or as a result of working with silver or silver compounds.[7]

While silver is potentially toxic to humans at high doses, the risk of serious harm from low doses, given over a short term, is slight. Treatment of external infections is considered safe; oral use of colloidal silver is safe for short term administration if the dose is low. Silver is used in some medical appliances because of its anti-microbial nature, which stems from the oligodynamic effect. Chronic ingestion or inhalation of silver preparations (especially colloidal silver) can lead to argyria in the skin and other organs. This is not life-threatening, but is considered by most to be cosmetically undesirable.[4][6][8][9]

The reference dose, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1991, which represents the estimated daily exposure that is unlikely to incur an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime, is 5 µg/(kg·d).[4]

Argyria worsens and builds up as exposure to silver continues, and does not resolve once exposure stops.

History Edit

Since at least the mid-19th century, doctors have known that silver or silver compounds can cause some areas of the skin and other body tissues to turn grey or blue-grey.[10][11] Argyria occurs in people who ingest or inhale silver in large quantities over a long period (several months to many years). People who work in factories that manufacture silver products can also breathe in silver or its compounds. In the past, some of these workers have become argyric. However, the level of silver in the air and the length of exposure that caused argyria in these workers is not known. Historically, colloidal silver, a liquid suspension of microscopic silver particles, was also used as an internal medication to treat a variety of diseases. In the 1940s, they were overtaken by the use of pharmaceutical antibiotics, such as penicillin.

Society and culture Edit

A prominent case from ingestion of colloidal silver was that of Stan Jones of Montana, a Libertarian candidate for the United States Senate in 2002 and 2006. The peculiar coloration of his skin was featured prominently in media coverage of his unsuccessful campaign, though Jones contended that the best-known photo was "doctored".[12] Jones promised that he was not using his silvery complexion as a gimmick. He promoted the use of colloidal silver as a home remedy.[12] He said that his good health, excepting the unusual skin tone, is the result of his use of colloidal silver.[12]

In 2007, press reports described Paul Karason, an American man whose entire skin gradually turned blue after using colloidal silver made by himself with distilled water, salt and silver, and using a silver salve on his face in an attempt to treat problems with his sinus, dermatitis, acid reflux and other issues.[13][14] Karason died on September 23, 2013 after suffering a heart attack and stroke, which were unrelated to his skin discolouration.[15]

Rosemary Jacobs is a prominent activist against alternative medicine. As a child, Jacobs was treated for allergies with nose drops that contained colloidal silver, and developed argyria as a result.[16] Jacobs came to international attention after Paul Karason was on The Today Show in 2008.[17][18] From 2010 to 2013, Jacobs posted about topics in health fraud, particularly naturopathy, on her blog.[19]

Possible implications Edit

Although research is still not definitive, the literature has suggested that argyria can cause a decrement in kidney function. Additionally, a lack of night vision may be present.[20] The lack of night vision would most likely be due to damaged rods in the eye, from the exposure to silver or silver dust particles in the ocular region.

See also Edit

Carotenodermia
Chrysiasis
Methemoglobinemia, another condition known for causing blue skin coloration
Amalgam tattoo
References Edit

^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; Elston, Dirk M.; Odom, Richard B. (2006). Andrews' diseases of the skin: clinical dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. p. 858. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. OCLC 62736861.
^ Guttmann, Paul. tr. by A. Napier. A handbook of physical diagnosis comprising the throat, thorax and abdomen. 1879. May be downloaded from https://archive.org/details/ahandbookphysic02guttgoog
^ Fox, Lawrance Webster. A practical treatise on ophthalmology. Pub. D. Appleton and company NY. 1920. May be downloaded from https://archive.org/details/apracticaltreat00foxgoog
^ a b c d Fung MC, Bowen DL (1996). "Silver products for medical indications: risk-benefit assessment". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. 34 (1): 119–26. doi:10.3109/15563659609020246. PMID 8632503.
^ "Over-the-counter drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Final rule". Federal Register. 64 (158): 44653–8. August 1999. PMID 10558603.
^ a b Lansdown AB (2006). "Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use". Current Problems in Dermatology. Current Problems in Dermatology. 33: 17–34. doi:10.1159/000093928. ISBN 3-8055-8121-1. PMID 16766878.
^ Brandt D, Park B, Hoang M, Jacobe HT (August 2005). "Argyria secondary to ingestion of homemade silver solution". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 53 (2 Suppl 1): S105–7. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2004.09.026. PMID 16021155.
^ http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts146.html[full citation needed]
^ http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp146-c1.pdf[full citation needed]
^ London Medical Gazette: Or, Journal of Practical Medicine. 1843. pp. 791–. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
^ The Cincinnati Lancet and Observer. E.B. Stevens. 1859. pp. 141–. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
^ a b c Stan Jones letter
^ Feeling Blue Over Skin Color | ABC News
^ "Why This Man Turned Blue". Today. NBCNEWS.com. 7 January 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
^ http://abcnews.go.com/Health/internet-s ... ePage=true[full citation needed]
^ Jacobs, Rosemary (1998). "My Story". Rosemary's Story. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
^ "Woman who turned silver warns of dangers of internet medicines". The Telegraph. 5 September 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
^ Hitti, Miranda (5 September 2008). "Facts About Argyria, the Gray Skin Condition Rosemary Jacobs Blames on Colloidal Silver". WebMD. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
^ Jacobs, Rosemary. "Rosemary's Medical Blog". Retrieved 19 November 2015.
Further reading Edit

Rosenman, Kenneth D., A. Moss, and S. Kon. "Argyria: clinical implications of exposure to silver nitrate and silver oxide". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 21.6 (June 1979): 430–435.
External links Edit

CDC Public Health Statement for Silver. 1990 alert from U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Accessed February 24, 2007.
"Rosemary's Story." Rosemary Jacobs explains her argyria; includes photographs. Accessed February 24, 2007.
"Systemic Argyria Associated With Ingestion of Colloidal Silver." by Akhil Wadhera, MD and Max Fung, MD. Dermatology Journal Online. Accessed February 24, 1997.
"Blue Man Seeks Acceptance" about another victim of argyria due to colloidal silver.
"Man Turns Blue", by Duncan Hooper, telegraph.co.uk, Dec. 21, 2007.
"This Man Turned Blue (video)", NBC Today Show, Matt Lauer interview, aired January 7, 2008.
Chemistry behind the ‘blue man’ unlocked", by Josh Howgego, Chemistry World, 1 November 2012.
Last edited 7 days ago by an anonymous user
RELATED ARTICLES
Medical uses of silver
Abrin
biotoxin
Metal toxicity
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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:35 pm 
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If that's the way you want to play it then that is fine by me.

You want to piss on our bonfire, then we will happily piss on yours.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:40 pm 
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who are the two children posting that crap :lol:


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:41 pm 
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paddyor wrote:
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eam eu civibus quaerendum, est persecuti mnesarchum cu. Assum referrentur in sed, has et adipisci mediocritatem, id commune scribentur ius. In oratio praesent vix, per platonem persequeris eu, mei no oratio lucilius perpetua. Quo feugiat indoctum at, rebum recteque usu ei. Minim paulo eripuit ea vix, cu dolorum periculis mei, ea habemus scripserit has. Sea cu feugait reprimique, his in aliquip vivendo percipit.

Ea vel senserit gubergren moderatius, nec explicari repudiare ad, odio docendi postulant cu mea. Vix labitur virtute constituam et. Mea quas facilisis ad, ne pri quodsi facilis urbanitas. Sonet fabellas duo an, solet nemore eu qui. Ad sin t saepe nec. Te falli admodum scribentu


Good post ... for you.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:44 pm 
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Le gallois forme avec le breton et le cornique la branche brittonique des langues celtiques, qui comprennent aussi les langues gaéliques (irlandais, gaélique écossais et mannois) ainsi que les langues celtiques continentales aujourd'hui éteintes. Au sein des langues brittoniques, le breton et le cornique sont plus proches entre eux que chacun ne l'est du gallois. Le groupe comportait jadis un quatrième membre, le cambrien, éteint au Moyen Âge et qui n'est connu que par quelques gloses.

Le gallois comporte diverses variétés, mais ses dialectes sont moins différenciés que ceux du breton. La division la plus importante sépare le gallois du nord de celui du sud, sur la base de quelques faits de prononciation, de différences lexicales et de tournures spécifiques.

Il existe par ailleurs une forte distinction de registre de langue entre le gallois courant (Cymraeg llafar) et le gallois littéraire (Cymraeg llenyddol) - les deux existant conjointement à l'écrit. Par rapport aux états anciens de la langue, ce dernier est beaucoup plus conservateur par sa syntaxe et sa morphologie nettement synthétique, alors que le gallois courant s'est développé dans un sens plus analytique. Le vocabulaire est également différent, le gallois littéraire préservant de nombreux mots sortis de l'usage actuel tandis que le gallois courant comporte de nombreux emprunts à l'anglais (plus ou moins bien acceptés). Aujourd'hui, en dehors de contextes artistiques, le gallois écrit se base pour l'essentiel sur la langue courante.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:46 pm 
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Yourmother wrote:
paddyor wrote:
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, eam eu civibus quaerendum, est persecuti mnesarchum cu. Assum referrentur in sed, has et adipisci mediocritatem, id commune scribentur ius. In oratio praesent vix, per platonem persequeris eu, mei no oratio lucilius perpetua. Quo feugiat indoctum at, rebum recteque usu ei. Minim paulo eripuit ea vix, cu dolorum periculis mei, ea habemus scripserit has. Sea cu feugait reprimique, his in aliquip vivendo percipit.

Ea vel senserit gubergren moderatius, nec explicari repudiare ad, odio docendi postulant cu mea. Vix labitur virtute constituam et. Mea quas facilisis ad, ne pri quodsi facilis urbanitas. Sonet fabellas duo an, solet nemore eu qui. Ad sin t saepe nec. Te falli admodum scribentu


Good post ... for you.


The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Welsh: Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nhgymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced. The intention was to create a single state and legal jurisdiction. The Acts were passed during the reign of King Henry VIII of England, who came from the Welsh Tudor dynasty.

Quick facts: Long title, Citation ...
Laws in Wales Act 1536


Parliament of England
Long title An Acte for Laws & Justice to be ministred in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realme
Citation 27 Henry VIII c. 26
Territorial extent Wales, Marcher Lordships
Dates
Repealed 21 December 1993
Other legislation
Repealed by Welsh Language Act 1993
Status: Repealed
Text of statute as originally enacted
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Quick facts: Long title, Citation ...
Laws in Wales Act 1542


Parliament of England
Long title An Acte for certaine Ordinaunces in the Kinges Majesties Domynion and Principalitie of Wales
Citation 34 & 35 Henry VIII c. 26
Territorial extent Wales, Marcher Lordships
Dates
Repealed 3 January 1995
Other legislation
Repealed by Welsh Language Act 1993
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
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Quick facts: Treaty of Windsor, Treaty of York ...
Documents relevant to personal
and legislative unions of the
countries of the United Kingdom
Treaty of Windsor 1175
Treaty of York 1237
Treaty of Perth 1266
Treaty of Montgomery 1267
Treaty of Aberconwy 1277
Statute of Rhuddlan 1284
Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton 1328
Treaty of Berwick 1357
Poynings' Law 1495
Laws in Wales Acts 1535–42
Crown of Ireland Act 1542
Treaty of Edinburgh 1560
Union of the Crowns 1603
Union of England and Scotland Act 1603
Act of Settlement 1701
Act of Security 1704
Alien Act 1705
Treaty of Union 1706
Acts of Union 1707
Personal Union of 1714 1714
Wales and Berwick Act 1746
Irish Constitution 1782
Acts of Union 1800
Government of Ireland Act 1920
Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921
Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927
N. Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972
Northern Ireland Assembly 1973
N. Ireland Constitution Act 1973
Northern Ireland Act 1998
Government of Wales Act 1998
Scotland Act 1998
Government of Wales Act 2006
Scotland Act 2012
Edinburgh Agreement 2012
Wales Act 2014
Scotland Act 2016
Wales Act 2017
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Before these Acts, Wales was excluded from Parliamentary representation and divided between the Principality of Wales, and a large number of feudal statelets; the marcher lordships.

The Act declared King Henry's intentions, that because of differences in law and language:

"(4) some rude and ignorant People have made Distinction and Diversity between the King's Subjects of this Realm, and his Subjects of the said Dominion and Principality of Wales, whereby great Discord, Variance, Debate, Division, Murmur and Sedition hath grown between his said Subjects;
(5) His Highness therefore of a singular Zeal, Love and Favour that he beareth towards his Subjects of his said Dominion of Wales, minding and intending to reduce them to the perfect Order, Notice and Knowledge of his Laws of this Realm, and utterly to extirp all and singular the sinister Usages and Customs differing from the same, and to bring the said Subjects of this his Realm, and of his said Dominion of Wales, to an amicable Concord and Unity..."
- and therefore:

"That his said Country or Dominion of Wales shall be, stand and continue for ever from henceforth incorporated, united and annexed to and with this his Realm of England;"
Names and dates of the Acts
They are sometimes misleadingly known as the Acts of Union (Welsh: Y Deddfau Uno), but the legal short title of each Act has since 1948 been "The Laws in Wales Act". They are also often seen cited by the years they received Royal Assent, 1536 and 1543 respectively, although the official citation uses the contemporary year in which the parliamentary session began. In the case of each of these Acts this date occurred between 1 January and 25 March, adding to the ambiguity in the dating because of the use at that time of the Julian or "old style" calendar and observed New Year's Day on 25 March rather than 1 January.

Background
From the conquest of Gwynedd in 1282–83 until the passing of the Laws in Wales Acts, the administrative system of Wales had remained unchanged. By the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 the territory of the native Welsh rulers had been broken up into the five counties of Anglesey, Caernarfon, Cardigan, Carmarthen, and Merioneth. Even though the five counties were subject to English criminal law, the "Principality" was the king of England's own personal fief and Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases. The rest of Wales, except for the county of Flint, which was part of the Principality, and the Royal lordships of Glamorgan and Pembroke, was made up of numerous small lordships, each with its own courts, laws and other customs.

When Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond (descended from an Anglesey landowning family) seized the English throne in 1485, becoming Henry VII, no change was made to the system of governing Wales. But he remained concerned about the power of the Marcher Lords and the lawlessness and disorder in the Welsh Marches. To deal with this there was a revival of the Council of Wales and the Marches, which had been established in the reign of Edward IV. After the deaths of many of the Marcher lords during the Wars of the Roses, many of the lordships had passed into the hands of the crown.

Henry VIII did not see the need to reform the government of Wales at the beginning of his reign, but gradually he perceived a threat from some of the remaining Marcher lords and therefore instructed his chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, to seek a solution. His solution was the annexation or incorporation of Wales which, along with other significant changes at the same time, led to the creation of England as a modern sovereign state.

The Acts have been known as the "Acts of Union", but they were not popularly referred to as such until 1901, when historian Owen M. Edwards assigned them that name — a name some historians such as S. B. Chrimes regard as misleading, as the Acts were concerned with harmonising laws, not political union.

The Acts
This harmonisation was done by passing a series of measures between 1536 and 1543. These included:

An Acte for Laws & Justice to be ministred in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realme (27 Henry VIII c. 26), was passed in 1536 in the 8th session of Henry VIII's 5th Parliament, which began on 4 February 1535/6, and repealed with effect from 21 December 1993; and
An Acte for certaine Ordinaunces in the Kinges Majesties Domynion and Principalitie of Wales (34 and 35 Henry VIII c. 26), was passed in 1543 in the 2nd session of Henry VIII's 8th Parliament, which began on 22 January 1542/3, and repealed with effect from 3 January 1995.
The first of these Acts was passed by a Parliament that had no representatives from Wales. Its effect was to extend English law into the Marches and provide that Wales had representation in future Parliaments.

The Acts were given their short titles by the Statute Law Revision Act 1948, s.5, sch.2.

Effects of the Acts
These Acts also had the following effects on the administration of Wales:

the marcher lordships were abolished as political units and five new counties from Welsh lands (Monmouthshire, Brecknockshire, Radnorshire, Montgomeryshire and Denbighshire) were established, thus creating a Wales of 13 counties;
other areas of the lordships were annexed to Shropshire, Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, Glamorgan, Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire, Cardiganshire and Merionethshire
the borders of Wales for administrative/government purposes were established and have remained the same since; this was unintentional as Wales was to be incorporated fully into England, but the status of Monmouthshire was still ambiguous in the view of some people until confirmed by the Local Government Act 1972. For ecclesiastical (i.e. Church of England) purposes, several areas of England were part of Welsh dioceses until disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, the area around Oswestry, Shropshire — part of St Asaph diocese — being the largest. (In 1920, those parishes falling wholly within England were transferred to English dioceses, though parishes partly in England and partly in Wales were allowed to elect either to remain in the Church of England or join the newly disestablished Church in Wales.)
Wales elected members to the English (Westminster) Parliament;
the Council of Wales and the Marches was established on a legal basis;
the Court of Great Sessions were established, a system peculiar to Wales;
a Sheriff was appointed in every county, and other county officers as in England.
the courts of the marcher lordships lost the power to try serious criminal cases;
the office of Justice of the Peace was introduced, 9 to every county;
each county or shire consisted of fewer than a dozen hundreds corresponding with varying degrees of accuracy to the former commotes.
These measures were not unpopular with the Welsh gentry in particular, who recognised that they would give them equality under law with English citizens. The reactions of many of the prominent Welsh of the day and down the centuries were very similar — gratitude that the laws had been introduced and made Wales a peaceful and orderly country.

It was only much later that some of the Welsh started to feel, in the words of A. O. H. Jarman, "that the privileges of citizenship were only given to the Welsh on condition that they forgot their own particular past and personality, denied their Welshness, and merged with England."

Despite historians such as G. R. Elton, who treated the Acts as merely a triumph of Tudor efficiency, modern British, and particularly Welsh, historians are more likely to investigate evidence of the damaging effects of the Acts on Welsh identity, culture, and economy. While the Welsh gentry embraced the Acts and quickly attempted to merge themselves into English aristocracy, the majority of the population could have found themselves adrift amid a legal and economic system whose language and focus were unfamiliar to them.

The Acts and the Welsh language
A sometimes selectively quoted example of the effects on the Welsh language is the first section of the 1535 Act, which states:

"...because that the People of the same Dominion have and do daily use a speche nothing like, ne consonant to the natural Mother Tongue used within this Realm, some rude and ignorant People have made Distinction and Diversity between the King's Subjects of this Realm, and his Subjects of the said Dominion and Principality of Wales, whereby great Discord Variance Debate Division Murmur and Sedition hath grown between his said Subjects;..."
The same section then goes on to say that:

"...all and singular Person and Persons, born and to be born in the said Principality Dominion or Country of Wales, shall have enjoy and inherit all and singular Freedoms Liberties Rights Privileges and Laws within this his Realm, and the King's other Dominions, as other the King's Subjects naturally born within the same have enjoy and inherit."
Section 20 of the 1535 Act made English the only language of the law courts and said that those who used Welsh would not be appointed to, or paid for, any public office in Wales:

"Also be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid,
That all Justices, Commissioners, Sheriffs, Coroners, Escheators, Stewards, and their Lieutenants, and all other Officers and Ministers of the Law, shall proclaim and keep the Sessions Courts Hundreds Leets Sheriffs Courts, and all other Courts in the English Tongue;
and all Oaths of Officers, Juries and Inquests, and all other Affidavits, Verdicts and Wager of Law, to be given and done in the English Tongue;
and also that from henceforth no Person or Persons that use the Welch Speech or Language, shall have or enjoy any manner Office or Fees within this Realm of England, Wales, or other the King's Dominion, upon Pain of forfeiting the same Offices or Fees, unless he or they use and exercise the English Speech or Language."
An effect of this language clause was to lay the foundation for creating a thoroughly Anglicised ruling class of landed gentry in Wales, which would have many consequences.

The parts of the 1535 Act relating to language were definitively repealed only in 1993, by the Welsh Language Act 1993, though annotations on the Statute Law Database reads that sections 18–21 were repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1887.

References
Tap to expand
Bibliography
Davies, John (1990), A History of Wales. London: Penguin 1994. ISBN 0-14-014581-8.
Williams, Glanmor (1993), Renewal and reformation : Wales, c.1415–1642. Oxford : Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285277-9.
Williams, W. Ogwen (1971), "The union of England and Wales". In A. J. Roderick (Ed.), Wales through the ages: volume II, Modern Wales, from 1485 to the beginning of the 20th century, pp. 16–23. Llandybïe : Christopher Davies (Publishers) Ltd. ISBN 0-7154-0292-7.
External links
Raithby, John; Tomlins, Sir Thomas Edlyne (1811). The statutes at large, of England and of Great Britain: from Magna Carta to the union of the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 3: 1509–53. London: Printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan. (Full text of the Acts as passed, from Google Books scan)
27 Henry VIII c.26 An Act for Laws and Justice to be ministered in Wales in like Form as it is in this Realm
34 & 35 Henry VIII c.26 An Act for certain Ordinances in the King's Majesty's Dominion and Principality of Wales


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:46 pm 
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Oh it'll be another anti-Welsh bigotry thread on PR? What's new.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:47 pm 
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Mythically, the nation of the Agĩkũyũ came from two original parents who were created by God, namely Gĩkũyũ and Mũmbi. The word Gĩkũyũ means 'a huge sycomore tree'. Ngai refers to the creator(Mumbi) who happens to be a life companion to the sycomore, the sacred tree from which the nation originated.[1] The Kikuyu are of a Bantu people.[3] They constitute the single largest ethnic group in Kenya, and are concentrated in the vicinity of Mount Kenya. The exact place that the Kikuyu's ancestors migrated from after the initial Bantu expansion from West Africa is uncertain. Some authorities suggest that they arrived in their present Mount Kenya area of habitation from earlier settlements further to the north and east,[3] while others argue that the Kikuyu, along with their closely related Eastern Bantu neighbors the Embu, Meru, Mbeere, and Kamba moved into Kenya from points further north.[4][5]
Before 1888[edit]
The nation and its pursuits[edit]
Until the arrival of Europeans, the Agĩkũyũ preserved geographic and political power from almost all external influence for many generations; they had never been subdued.[6] Just before the arrival of the British, Arabs were involved in slave trade and their caravans passed at the southern edges of the Agĩkũyũ nation. Slavery as an institution did not exist amongst the Agĩkũyũ, nor did they make raids for the capture of slaves.[7] The Arabs who tried to venture into Agĩkũyũ land met instant death.[8] Relying on a combination of land purchases, blood-brotherhood (partnerships), intermarriage with other people, and their adoption and absorption, the Agĩkũyũ were in a constant state of territorial expansion.[9] Economically, the Agĩkũyũ were great farmers[10] and shrewd businesspeople.[11] Besides farming and business, the Agĩkũyũ were involved in small scale industries with professions such as bridge building,[12] string making,[13] wire drawing,[14] and iron chain making.[15] The Agĩkũyũ had a great sense of justice (kihooto).[12]
Social and political life[edit]
The Agĩkũyũ nation was divided into nine clans. The members of each clan had a common maternal blood tie, but were not restricted to any particular geographical area, they lived side by side. Some clans had a recognised leader, others did not.[16] However, in either case, real political power was exercised by the ruling council of elders, led by a headman.
Spirituality and religion[edit]
Ngai – The Supreme Creator[edit]
The Gĩkũyũ were – and still are – monotheists believing in an omnipotent God whom they refer to as Ngai. All of the Gĩkũyũ, Embu, and Kamba use this name. Ngai was also known as Mũrungu by the Meru and Embu tribes, or Mũlungu (a variant of a word meaning God which is found as far south as the Zambezi of Zambia). The title Mwathani or Mwathi (the greatest ruler) comes from the word gwatha meaning to rule or reign with authority, was and is still used. All sacrifices to Ngai were performed under a sycomore tree (Mũkũyũ) and if one was not available, a fig tree (Mũgumo) would be used. The olive tree (Mũtamaiyũ) was a sacred tree for women.[17]
Mount Kenya and religion[edit]
Ngai or mwene-nyaga is the Supreme Creator and giver of all things. He created the first Gĩkũyũ communities, and provided them with all the resources necessary for life: land, rain, plants, and animals. Ngai cannot be seen but is manifested in the sun, moon, stars, comets and meteors, thunder and lightning, rain, rainbows, and in the great fig trees (Mugumo). These trees served as places of worship and sacrifice and marked the spot at Mũkũrũe wa Gathanga where Gĩkũyũ and Mũmbi – the ancestors of the Gĩkũyũ in the oral legend – first settled. Ngai has human characteristics, and although some say that he lives in the sky or in the clouds, Gĩkũyũ lore also says that Ngai comes to earth from time to time to inspect it, bestow blessings, and mete out punishment. When he comes, Ngai rests on Mount Kenya and Kilimambogo (kĩrĩma kĩa njahĩ). Thunder is interpreted to be the movement of Ngai and lightning is the weapon used by Ngai to clear the way when moving from one sacred place to another. Some people believe that Ngai's abode is on Mount Kenya. In one legend, Ngai made the mountain his resting place while on an inspection tour of earth. Ngai then took the first man, Gikuyu, to the top to point out the beauty of the land he was giving him.
Philosophy of the Traditional Kikuyu Religion[edit]
The cardinal points in this Traditional Gĩkũyũ Religion Philosophy were squarely based on the general Bantu peoples thought as follows:[18]
The universe is composed of interacting and interconnected forces whose manifestation is the physical things we see, including ourselves and those we don't see.
All those forces (things) in the universe came from God who, from the beginning of time, have had the vital divine force of creation within himself.
Everything created by God retains a bond from God (Creator) to the created.
The first humans who were created by God have the strongest vital force because they got it directly from God.
Because these first humans sit just below God in power, they are almost like Gods or even can be Gods.
The current parent of an individual is the link to God through the immediate dead and through ancestors.
On Earth, humans have the highest quantity of vital force.
All the other things (forces) on Earth were created to enable human vital force (being) become stronger.
All things have vital force but some objects, plants and animals have higher vital force than others.
A human can use an animal to symbolize the level of his vital force compared to other humans.
There is a specific point within every physical manifestation (thing) of vital force where most that force is concentrated.
A human can easily manipulate things to his advantage or to their detriment by identifying this point of concentration of vital force. There are human beings who have more knowledge of these forces and can manipulate them at will usually by invoking higher forces to assist.
Higher forces are invoked by humans using lower forces (animal or plant sacrifice) as intermediaries. To approach higher forces directly is thahu (abomination which leads to a curse).
The human society has some few elite people very skilled in the art of manipulating forces to strengthen a human(s) force or diminish it, strengthen any force below human force or diminish it.
The leader of a human society is the one possessing the highest vital force as at that time or the one closest to God or both. Since the leader of this human society has the highest vital force and hence closer to God than any other person, he should be able to nourish the rest of the people by linking them to the ultimate God and by being able to command lower forces to act in such a way so as to reinforce the other humans vital force.
The life force of a dead ancestor can come back to life through the act of birth of a new child, especially when the child is named after the departed ancestor and all is seen to be well.
The Gĩkũyũ nation, being of Bantu family held a belief in the interconnection of everything in the universe. To the Gĩkũyũ people, everything we see had an inner spiritual force and the most sacred though unspoken ontology was being is force.[18] This spiritual vital force originated from God, who had the power to create or destroy that life force. To the Gĩkũyũ people, God was the supreme being in the universe and the giver(Mũgai/Ngai) of this life force to everything that exists. Gĩkũyũ people also believed that everything God created had a vital inner force and a connection bond to Him by the mere fact that he created that thing and gave it that inner force that makes it be and be manifested physically.[18] To the Agĩkũyũ, God had this life force within himself hence He was the ultimate owner and ruler of everything in the universe. The latter was the ultimate conception of God among the Gĩkũyũ people hence the name Mũgai/Ngai. To the Gĩkũyũ people, those who possessed the greatest life force, those closest to God were the first parents created by God because God directly gave them the vital living force. These first parents were so respected to be treated almost like God himself. These were followed by the ancestors of the people who inherited life force from the first parents, then followed by the immediate dead and finally the eldest in the community. Hence when people wanted to offer sacrifices, the eldest in the community would perform the rites. Children in the community had a link to God through their parents and that chain would move upwards to parent parents, ancestors, first created parents until it reaches God Himself.[18] The Gĩkũyũ people believed the departed spirits of the ancestors can be reborn again in this world when children are being born, hence the rites performed during the child naming ceremonies.[18] The Gĩkũyũ people believed the vital life force or soul of a person can be increased or diminished, thereby affecting the person's health. They also believed that some people possessed power to manipulate the inner force in all things. These people who increased the well being of a person spirit were called medicine-men (Mũgo) while those who diminished the person's life force were called witchdoctors (Mũrogi). They also believed that ordinary items can have their spiritual powers increased such that they protect a person against those bent on diminishing a person vital life force. Such an item with such powers was called gĩthitũ.[19] Thus, the philosophy of the Gĩkũyũ religion and life in general was anchored on the understanding that everything in the universe has an inner interlinked force that we do not see.[18] God among the Gĩkũyũ people was understood hence to be the owner and distributor(Mũgai) of this inner life force in all things and He was worshiped and praised to either increase the life force of all things (farm produce, cattle, children) the Gĩkũyũ people possessed and minimize events that led to catastrophes that would diminish the life force of the people or lead to death. The leader of the Gĩkũyũ people was the person who was thought to possess the greatest life force among the people or the person who had demonstrated the greatest life force in taking care of the people, their families, their farm produce, their cattle and their land.[18] This person was hence thought to be closer to God than anybody else living in that nation.The said person also had to demonstrate and practice the highest levels of truth (maa) and justice (kihooto), just like the supreme God of the Gĩkũyũ people would do.[18]
Political structures and generational change[edit]
The Agĩkũyũ had four seasons and two harvests in one year.[20]
Mbura ya njahĩ (the season of big rain) from March to July,
Magetha ma njahĩ (the season of the black bean harvest) between July and Early October,
Mbura ya Mwere (short rain season) from October to January,
Magetha ma Mwere (the season of harvesting) milletà
Mbura ya Kimera
Further, time was recorded through the initiation by circumcision. Each initiation group was given special name.[21] According to Professor Godfrey Mũriũki, the individual initiation sets are then grouped into a regiment every nine calendar years. Before a regiment or army was set, there was a period in which no initiation of boys took place. This period lasted a total of four and a half calendar years (nine seasons in Gĩkũyũ land, each season referred to as imera) and is referred to as mũhingo,[21] with initiation taking place at the start of the fifth year and going on annually for the next nine calendar years. This was the system adopted in Metumi Murang'a. The regiment or army sets also get special names, some of which seem to have ended up as popular male names. In Gaki Nyeri the system was inversed with initiation taking place annually for four calendar years, which would be followed by a period of nine calendar years in which no initiation of boys took place (mũhingo).[21] Girls on the other hand were initiated every year. Several regiments then make up a ruling generation. It was estimated that Ruling generations lasted an average of 35 years. The names of the initiation and regiment sets vary within Gĩkũyũ land. The ruling generations are however uniform and provide very important chronological data. On top of that, the initiation sets were a way of documenting events within the Gĩkũyũ nation, so, for example, were the occurrence of smallpox and syphilis recorded.[21] Girls’ initiation sets were also accorded special names, although there has been little research in this area. Mũriũki only unearths three sets, whose names are, Rũharo [1894], Kibiri/Ndũrĩrĩ [1895], Kagica [1896], Ndutu/Nuthi [1897].[21] All these names are taken from Metumi (Mũrang’a) and Kabete Kĩambu. It is strange that professor Mũriũki didn’t do more research in this area because he states that the girls’ initiation took place annually.[21]
Manjiri 1512 – 46 ± 55
Mamba 1547 – 81 ± 50
Tene 1582–1616 ± 45
Agu 1617 – 51 ± 40
Manduti 1652 – 86 ± 40
Cuma 1687–1721 ± 30
Ciira 1722 – 56 ± 25
Mathathi 1757–1791 ± 20
Ndemi 1792–1826 ± 15
Iregi 1827–1861 ± 10
Maina 1862 – 97 ± 5
Mwangi 1898?
Mathew Njoroge Kabetũs list reads, Tene, Kĩyĩ, Aagu, Ciĩra, Mathathi, Ndemi, Iregi, Maina (Ngotho), Mwangi. Gakaara wa Wanjaũs list reads Tene, Nemathĩ, Kariraũ, Aagu, Tiru, Cuma, Ciira, Ndemi, Mathathi, Iregi, Maina, Mwangi, Irũngũ, Mwangi wa Mandũti.[22] The last two generations came after 1900. One of the earliest recorded lists by McGregor reads (list taken from a history of unchanged) Manjiri, Mandoti, Chiera, Masai, Mathathi, Ndemi, Iregi, Maina, Mwangi, Muirungu. According to Hobley (a historian) each initiation generation, riika, extended over two years. The ruling generation at the arrival of the Europeans was called Maina. It is said that Maina handed over to Mwangi in 1898.[22] Hobley asserts that the following sets were grouped under Maina – Kĩnũthia, Karanja, Njũgũna, Kĩnyanjui, Gathuru and Ng’ang’a. Professor Mũriũki[23] however puts these sets much earlier, namely Karanja and Kĩnũthia belong to the Ciira ruling generation which ruled from the year 1722 to 1756, give or take 25 years, according to Mũriũki. Njũgũna, Kĩnyanjui, Ng’ang’a belong to the Mathathi ruling generation that ruled from 1757 to 1791, give or take 20 years, according to Mũriũki.[23]
Professor Mũriũkis list must be given precedence in this area as he conducted extensive research in this area starting 1969, and had the benefit of all earlier literature on the subject as well as doing extensive field work in the areas of Gaki (Nyeri), Metumi (Mũrang’a) and Kabete (Kĩambu). On top of the ruling generations, he also gives names of the regiments or army sets from 1659 [within a margin of error] and the names of annual initiation sets beginning 1864. The list from Metumi (Mũrang’a) is most complete and differentiated.[23]
Mũriũkis is also the most systematically defined list, so far. Suffice to say that most of the most popular male names in Gĩkũyũ land were names of riikas (initiation sets).[23]
Here is Mũriũkis list of the names of regiment sets in Metumi (Mũrang’a).
These include Kiariĩ (1665–1673), Cege (1678–1678), Kamau (1704–1712), Kĩmani (1717–1725), Karanja (1730–1738), Kĩnũthia (1743–1751), Njũgũna (1756–1764), Kĩnyanjui (1769–1777), Ng’ang’a (1781–1789), Njoroge (1794–1802), Wainaina (1807–1815), Kang’ethe (1820–1828) Mbugua (1859–1867), Njenga or Mbira Itimu (1872–1880), Mutung’u or Mburu (1885–1893).[23]
H.E. Lambert who dealt with the riikas extensively has the following list of regiment sets from Gichũgũ and Ndia.[24] It should be remembered that this names were unlike ruling generations not uniform in Gĩkũyũ land. It should also be noted that Ndia and Gachũgũ followed a system where initiation took place every annually for four years and then a period of nine calendar years followed where no initiation of boys took place. This period was referred to as mũhingo.[24]
Karanja (1759–1762), Kĩnũthia (1772–1775), Ndũrĩrĩ (1785–1788), Mũgacho (1798–1801), Njoroge (1811–1814), Kang’ethe (1824–1827), Gitaũ (1837–1840), Manyaki (1850–1853), Kiambuthi (1863–1866), Watuke (1876–1879), Ngũgĩ (1889–1892), Wakanene (1902–1905).[24]
The remarkable thing in this list in comparison to the Metumi one is how some of the same names are used, if a bit offset. Ndia and Gachũgũ are extremely far from Metumi. Gaki on the other hand, as far as my geographical understanding of Gĩkũyũ land is concerned should be much closer to Metumi, yet virtually no names of regiment sets are shared. It should however be noted that Gaki had a strong connection to the Maasai living nearby.[24]
The ruling generation names of Maina and Mwangi are also very popular male Gĩkũyũ names. The theory is also that Waciira is also derived from ciira (case), which is also a very popular masculine name among the Agĩkũyũ. This would call into question, when it was exactly that children started being named after the parents of one's parents. Had that system, of naming one's children after one's parents been there from the beginning, there would be very few male names in circulation. This is however not the case, as there are very many Gĩkũyũ male names. One theory is that the female names are much less, with the names of the full-nine daughters of Mũmbi being most prevalent.[23]
Gakaara wa Wanjaũ supports this view when he writes in his book, Mĩhĩrĩga ya Aagĩkũyũ.[25]
Hingo ĩyo ciana cia arũme ciatuagwo marĩĩtwa ma mariika ta Watene, Cuma, Iregi kana Ciira. Nao airĩĩtu magatuuo marĩĩtwa ma mĩhĩrĩga tauria hagwetetwo nah au kabere, o nginya hingo iria maundu maatabariirwo thuuthaini ati ciana ituagwo aciari a mwanake na a muirĩĩtu.[25]
Freely translated it means "In those days the male children were given the names of the riika (initiation set) like Watene, Cuma, Iregi or Ciira. Girls were on the other hand named after the clans that were named earlier until such a time as it was decided to name the children after the parents of the man and the woman." From this statement it is not clear whether the girls were named ad hoc after any clan, no matter what clan the parents belonged to. Naming them after the specific clan that the parents belonged to would have severely restricted naming options.
This would strangely mean that the female names are the oldest in Gĩkũyũ land, further confirming its matrilineal descent. As far as male names are concerned, there is of course the chicken and the egg question, of when a name specifically appeared but some names are tied to events that happened during the initiation. For example, Wainaina refers to those who shivered during circumcision. Kũinaina (to shake or to shiver).
There was a very important ceremony known as Ituĩka in which the old guard would hand over the reins of government to the next generation.[23] This was to avoid dictatorship. Kenyatta[26] relates of how once in the land of the Agĩkũyũ, there ruled a despotic King called Gĩkũyũ, grandson of the elder daughter (Wanjirũ according to Leakey) of the original Gĩkũyũ of Gĩkũyũ and Mũmbi fame. After he was deposed of, it was decided that the government should be democratic, which is how the Ituĩka came to be. This legend of course calls into question when it was exactly that the matrilineal rule set in. The last Ituĩka ceremony where the riika of Maina handed over power to the Mwangi generation, took place in 1898-9.[19] The next one was supposed to be held in 1925–1928 [Kenyatta] but was thwarted by the colonial imperialist government. And one by one Gĩkũyũ institutions crumbled[23]
Collapse of traditional political structure[edit]
The ruling generations, the rĩĩka system can be traced back to the year 1500 AD or there abouts.[23] These were:
Manjiri 1512 to 1546
Mamba 1547 to 1581
Tene 1582 to 1616
Agu 1617 to 1652
Manduti 1652 to 1686
Cuma 1687 to 1721
Ciira 1722 to 1756
Mathathi 1757 to 1791
Ndemi 1792 to 1826
Iregi 1827 to 1861
Maina 1862 to 1897
Mwangi 1898
The last Ituĩka ceremony where the rĩĩka of Maina handed over power to the Mwangi generation, took place in 1898–1899[19] The next one was supposed to be held in 1925–1928[27] but was thwarted by the colonial government.The traditional symbols of power among the Agikuyu nation is the Muthĩgi(stick) which signifies power to lead and the itimũ(Spear) signifying power to call people to a war.[28]
1888–1945[edit]
The traditional way of life of Agikuyu was disrupted when they came into contact with British people around 1888. The aim of these Europeans was to subdue the local population, colonise and take over their rich agricultural land. The colonial takeover was met with strong local resistance: Waiyaki Wa Hinga, a leader of the southern Agikuyu, who ruled Dagoretti who had signed a treaty with Frederick Lugard of the British East Africa Company (BEAC), having been subject to considerable harassment, burned down Lugard's fort in 1890. Waiyaki was abducted two years later by the British and killed.[29]
Following severe financial difficulties of the British East Africa Company, the British government on 1 July 1895 established direct rule, by force, through the East African Protectorate, subsequently opening (1902) the fertile highlands to British settlers.[29] The Agikuyu simply killed almost any member of the Agikuyu nation that helped the British to subdue the Agikuyu.[30] In response the British employed crude methods to retaliate. Failing compliance in such a case, some five hundred of the Masai tribe, the hereditary enemies of the Akikuyu, would then be summoned, and with the addition of some regular local conscripted troops and police the country would be scoured. The men were killed, and the women, children, and herds taken captive until such time as, experience having been dearly bought, another meeting procured the requisite submission.[31] Having tried to violently resist British occupation and colonisation by force and failed between 1895–1920, the Agikuyu people resulted to political means of resistance.
Kenya became a military base for the British in the First World War (1914–18), as efforts to subdue the German colony to the south were frustrated. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, the governors of British East Africa (as the Protectorate was generally known) and German East Africa agreed a truce in an attempt to keep the young colonies out of direct hostilities. However Lt Col Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck took command of the German military forces, determined to tie down as many British resources as possible. Completely cut off from Germany, von Lettow conducted an effective guerrilla warfare campaign, living off the land, capturing British supplies, and remaining undefeated. He eventually surrendered in Zambia eleven days after the Armistice was signed in 1918. To chase von Lettow the British deployed Indian Army troops from India and then needed large numbers of porters to overcome the formidable logistics of transporting supplies far into the interior by foot. The Carrier Corps was formed and ultimately mobilised over 400,000 Africans, contributing to their long-term politicisation.
The experiences gained by Africans in the war, coupled with the creation of the white-settler-dominated Kenya Crown Colony, gave rise to considerable political activity in the 1920s which culminated in Archdeacon Owen's "Piny Owacho" (Voice of the People) movement and the "Young Kikuyu Association" (renamed the "East African Association") started in 1921 by Harry Thuku (1895–1970), which gave a sense of nationalism to many Kikuyu and advocated civil disobedience. From the 1920s, the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) focused on unifying the Kikuyu into one geographic polity, but its project was undermined by controversies over ritual tribute, land allocation, the ban on female circumcision, and support for Thuku.
By the 1930s, approximately 30,000 white settlers lived in Agikuyu country and gained a political voice because of their contribution to the market economy. The area was already home to over a million members of the Kikuyu nation, most of whom had been deprived of their land by the European settlers, and lived as itinerant farmers. To protect their interests, the settlers banned the growing of coffee, introduced a hut tax, and the landless were granted less and less land in exchange for their labour. A massive exodus to the cities ensued as their ability to provide a living from the land dwindled.
In the Second World War (1939–45) Kenya became an important British military base. For the Agikuyu soldiers who took part in the war as part of the King's African Rifles (KAR), the war stimulated African nationalism and exposed the weakness of the Europeans who were oppressing them at home. Meanwhile, on the political front, in 1944 Thuku founded and was first chairman of the multi-ethnic Kenya African Study Union (KASU).
1945–1963[edit]

First President of Kenya Jomo Kenyatta
In 1946 KASU became the Kenya African Union (KAU). It was a nationalist organisation that demanded access to white-owned land. KAU acted as a constituency association for the first black member of Kenya's legislative council, Eliud Mathu, who had been nominated in 1944 by the governor after consulting with the local Bantu/Nilotic elite. The KAU remained dominated by the Kikuyu ethnic group. In 1947 Jomo Kenyatta, the former president of the moderate Kikuyu Central Association, became president of the more aggressive KAU to demand a greater political voice for the native inhabitants. The failure of the KAU to attain any significant reforms or redress of grievances from the colonial authorities shifted the political initiative to younger and more militant figures within the African trade union movement, among the squatters on the settler estates in the Rift Valley and in KAU branches in Nairobi and the Kikuyu districts of central province[32]
By 1952, under Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi, the Kenya Land and Freedom Army (Mau Mau) launched a full military conflict on the British military, settlers and their native allies. By this time the Mau Mau was fighting for total independence of Kenya. The war is considered by some the gravest crisis of Britain's African colonies[33] The capture of rebel leader Dedan Kimathi on 21 October 1956 signalled the ultimate defeat of the Mau Mau Uprising, and essentially ended the British military campaign although the state of emergency would last until 1959. The conflict arguably set the stage for Kenyan independence in December 1963.
1963–present[edit]

Governor of Central Bank of Kenya Ngugi Njoroge
Since the proclamation of the Republic of Kenya, after the British colony of Kenya came to an end in 1963, the Agikuyu now form an integral part of the Kenyan nation. They continue to play their part as citizens of Kenya, helping to build their country. However, some Kenyans resent their incorrectly perceived superior economic status, a resentment sometimes vented through political violence, as happened in 1992, 1997 and 2007 Kenyan elections.
Genetics[edit]
According to a Y-Chromosome DNA study by Wood et al. (2005), around 73% of Gĩkũyũs and their Bantu kinsmen the Kamba belong to the common Sub-Saharan paternal haplogroup E1b1a. The remainder carry other clades: 19% E1b1b, 2% A, and 2% B.[34]
In terms of maternal lineages, Gĩkũyũs closely cluster with other Eastern Bantu groups like the Sukuma. Most belong to various Sub-Saharan mtDNA L haplogroups such as L0f, L3x, L4g and L5 per Castrì et al. (2009).[35] According to Salas et al. (2002), other Gĩkũyũs largely carry the L1a clade, which is a signature of the Bantu expansion from West Africa.[36]
Culture[edit]

Statue of Mau Mau Freedom Fighter Dedan Kimathi
Language[edit]
Gĩkũyũs speak the Gĩkũyũ language as their native tongue, which is a member of the Bantu subgroup of the Niger–Congo language family. Additionally, many speak Swahili and English as lingua franca, the two official languages of Kenya.
The Gĩkũyũ are closely related to the Embu, Meru, Mbeere, and Kamba people who also live around Mt. Kenya. Members of the Gĩkũyũ family from the greater Kiambu (commonly referred to as the Kabete) and Nyeri districts are closely related to the Maasai people due to intermarriage prior to colonisation. The Gĩkũyũ people between Thika and Mbeere are closely related to the Kamba people who speak a language similar to Gĩkũyũ. As a result, the Gĩkũyũ people that retain much of the original Gĩkũyũ heritage reside around Kirinyaga and Murang'a regions of Kenya. The Murang'a district is considered by many to be the cradle of the Gĩkũyũ people and as such, Gĩkũyũ's from the Murang'a area are considered to be of a purer breed.
Literature[edit]
Until 1888, the Agikuyu literature was purely expressed in folklore.[31] Famous stories include The Maiden Who Was Sacrificed By Her Kin, The Lost Sister, The Four Young Warriors, The Girl who Cut the Hair of the N'jenge, and many more.
When the European missionaries arrived in the Agikuyu country in 1888, they learnt the Kikuyu language and started writing it using a modified Roman alphabet. The Kikuyu responded strongly to missionaries and European education. They had greater access to education and opportunities for involvement in the new money economy and political changes in their country. As a consequence, there are notable Kikuyu literature icons such as Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o and Meja Mwangi. Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o's literary works include Caitani Mutharabaini (1981), Matigari (1986) and Murogi wa Kagogo (Wizard of the Crow (2006)) which is the largest known Kikuyu language novel having been translated into more than thirty languages[37]
Music[edit]
Traditional Kikuyu music has existed for generations up to 1888, when the Agikuyu people encountered and adopted a new culture from the Europeans. Before 1888 and well into the 1920s, Kikuyu music included Kibaata, Nduumo and Muthunguci. Today, Music and Dance are strong components of Kikuyu culture. There is a vigorous Kikuyu recording industry, for both popular and gospel music, in their pentatonic scale and western music styles. Popular Kikuyu musicians include Joseph Kamaru, DK Kamau, Wanganangu, HM, D'mathew, Peter Kiggia, Mike Rua and Esther Wahome.
Cinema[edit]
Kikuyu cinema and film production are a very recent phenomenon among the Agikuyu. They have become popular only in the 21st century. In the 20th century, most of the Agikuyu consumed cinema and film produced in the west, particularly America's . Popular Kikuyu film productions include comedies such as Machang'i series and Kihenjo series. There is also the movie Kitchen Toto set in colonial Kenya where a young Kikuyu boy, Mwangi, works for British settlers in Kenya at that time, depicting the hardships they had to go through as the workers faced constant pressure from the MauMau freedom fighters who wanted the workers to join them. The movie that uses Gikuyu as its primary language gained popularity from the Gikuyu populace.
Cuisine[edit]
Typical Agĩkũyũ food includes Gītheri (maize and beans), Mūkimo (mashed green peas and potatoes), Kīmitū (mashed beans and potatoes), Irio (mashed dry beans, corn and potatoes), Mūtura (sausage made using goat intestines, meat and blood), Ūcūrū (fermented porridge made from flour of corn, millet or sorghum) roast goat, beef, chicken and cooked green vegetables such as collards, spinach and carrots.[38]
Religion[edit]
Although Gĩkũyũs historically adhered to indigenous faiths, most are Christians today.


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History of quantum mechanics
See also: Timeline of quantum mechanics and History of physics

10 influential figures in the history of quantum mechanics. Left to right:
Max Planck, Albert Einstein,
Niels Bohr, Louis de Broglie,
Max Born, Paul Dirac,
Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli,
Erwin Schrödinger, Richard Feynman.
The history of quantum mechanics is a fundamental part of the history of modern physics. Quantum mechanics' history, as it interlaces with the history of quantum chemistry, began essentially with a number of different scientific discoveries: the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday; the 1859–60 winter statement of the black-body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff; the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system could be discrete; the discovery of the photoelectric effect by Heinrich Hertz in 1887; and the 1900 quantum hypothesis by Max Planck that any energy-radiating atomic system can theoretically be divided into a number of discrete "energy elements" ε (epsilon) such that each of these energy elements is proportional to the frequency ν with which each of them individually radiate energy, as defined by the following formula:

{\displaystyle \epsilon =h\nu \,} \epsilon =h\nu \,
where h is a numerical value called Planck's constant.

Then, Albert Einstein in 1905, in order to explain the photoelectric effect previously reported by Heinrich Hertz in 1887, postulated consistently with Max Planck's quantum hypothesis that light itself is made of individual quantum particles, which in 1926 came to be called photons by Gilbert N. Lewis. The photoelectric effect was observed upon shining light of particular wavelengths on certain materials, such as metals, which caused electrons to be ejected from those materials only if the light quantum energy was greater than the work function of the metal's surface.

The phrase "quantum mechanics" was coined (in German, Quantenmechanik) by the group of physicists including Max Born, Werner Heisenberg, and Wolfgang Pauli, at the University of Göttingen in the early 1920s, and was first used in Born's 1924 paper "Zur Quantenmechanik".[1] In the years to follow, this theoretical basis slowly began to be applied to chemical structure, reactivity, and bonding.

Overview Edit


Ludwig Boltzmann's diagram of the I2 molecule proposed in 1898 showing the atomic "sensitive region" (α, β) of overlap.
Ludwig Boltzmann suggested in 1877 that the energy levels of a physical system, such as a molecule, could be discrete. He was a founder of the Austrian Mathematical Society, together with the mathematicians Gustav von Escherich and Emil Müller. Boltzmann's rationale for the presence of discrete energy levels in molecules such as those of iodine gas had its origins in his statistical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics theories and was backed up by mathematical arguments, as would also be the case twenty years later with the first quantum theory put forward by Max Planck.

In 1900, the German physicist Max Planck reluctantly introduced the idea that energy is quantized in order to derive a formula for the observed frequency dependence of the energy emitted by a black body, called Planck's Law, that included a Boltzmann distribution (applicable in the classical limit). Planck's law[2] can be stated as follows: {\displaystyle I(\nu ,T)={\frac {2h\nu ^{3}}{c^{2}}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {h\nu }{kT}}-1}},} I(\nu ,T)={\frac {2h\nu ^{3}}{c^{2}}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {h\nu }{kT}}-1}}, where:

I(ν,T) is the energy per unit time (or the power) radiated per unit area of emitting surface in the normal direction per unit solid angle per unit frequency by a black body at temperature T;
h is the Planck constant;
c is the speed of light in a vacuum;
k is the Boltzmann constant;
ν is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation; and
T is the temperature of the body in kelvins.
The earlier Wien approximation may be derived from Planck's law by assuming {\displaystyle h\nu \gg kT} h\nu \gg kT.

Moreover, the application of Planck's quantum theory to the electron allowed Ștefan Procopiu in 1911–1913, and subsequently Niels Bohr in 1913, to calculate the magnetic moment of the electron, which was later called the "magneton"; similar quantum computations, but with numerically quite different values, were subsequently made possible for both the magnetic moments of the proton and the neutron that are three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the electron.

Photoelectric effect

The emission of electrons from a metal plate caused by light quanta (photons) with energy greater than the work function of the metal.
The photoelectric effect reported by Heinrich Hertz in 1887,
and explained by Albert Einstein in 1905.
Low-energy phenomena: Photoelectric effect
Mid-energy phenomena: Compton scattering
High-energy phenomena: Pair production
In 1905, Einstein explained the photoelectric effect by postulating that light, or more generally all electromagnetic radiation, can be divided into a finite number of "energy quanta" that are localized points in space. From the introduction section of his March 1905 quantum paper, "On a heuristic viewpoint concerning the emission and transformation of light", Einstein states:

"According to the assumption to be contemplated here, when a light ray is spreading from a point, the energy is not distributed continuously over ever-increasing spaces, but consists of a finite number of 'energy quanta' that are localized in points in space, move without dividing, and can be absorbed or generated only as a whole."

This statement has been called the most revolutionary sentence written by a physicist of the twentieth century.[3] These energy quanta later came to be called "photons", a term introduced by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1926. The idea that each photon had to consist of energy in terms of quanta was a remarkable achievement; it effectively solved the problem of black-body radiation attaining infinite energy, which occurred in theory if light were to be explained only in terms of waves. In 1913, Bohr explained the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom, again by using quantization, in his paper of July 1913 On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules.

These theories, though successful, were strictly phenomenological: during this time, there was no rigorous justification for quantization, aside, perhaps, from Henri Poincaré's discussion of Planck's theory in his 1912 paper Sur la théorie des quanta.[4][5] They are collectively known as the old quantum theory.

The phrase "quantum physics" was first used in Johnston's Planck's Universe in Light of Modern Physics (1931).


With decreasing temperature, the peak of the blackbody radiation curve shifts to longer wavelengths and also has lower intensities. The blackbody radiation curves (1862) at left are also compared with the early, classical limit model of Rayleigh and Jeans (1900) shown at right. The short wavelength side of the curves was already approximated in 1896 by the Wien distribution law.

Niels Bohr's 1913 quantum model of the atom, which incorporated an explanation of Johannes Rydberg's 1888 formula, Max Planck's 1900 quantum hypothesis, i.e. that atomic energy radiators have discrete energy values (ε = hν), J. J. Thomson's 1904 plum pudding model, Albert Einstein's 1905 light quanta postulate, and Ernest Rutherford's 1907 discovery of the atomic nucleus. Note that the electron does not travel along the black line when emitting a photon. It jumps, disappearing from the outer orbit and appearing in the inner one and cannot exist in the space between orbits 2 and 3.
In 1923, the French physicist Louis de Broglie put forward his theory of matter waves by stating that particles can exhibit wave characteristics and vice versa. This theory was for a single particle and derived from special relativity theory. Building on de Broglie's approach, modern quantum mechanics was born in 1925, when the German physicists Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan[6][7] developed matrix mechanics and the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger invented wave mechanics and the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation as an approximation to the generalised case of de Broglie's theory.[8] Schrödinger subsequently showed that the two approaches were equivalent.

Heisenberg formulated his uncertainty principle in 1927, and the Copenhagen interpretation started to take shape at about the same time. Starting around 1927, Paul Dirac began the process of unifying quantum mechanics with special relativity by proposing the Dirac equation for the electron. The Dirac equation achieves the relativistic description of the wavefunction of an electron that Schrödinger failed to obtain. It predicts electron spin and led Dirac to predict the existence of the positron. He also pioneered the use of operator theory, including the influential bra–ket notation, as described in his famous 1930 textbook. During the same period, Hungarian polymath John von Neumann formulated the rigorous mathematical basis for quantum mechanics as the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces, as described in his likewise famous 1932 textbook. These, like many other works from the founding period, still stand, and remain widely used.

The field of quantum chemistry was pioneered by physicists Walter Heitler and Fritz London, who published a study of the covalent bond of the hydrogen molecule in 1927. Quantum chemistry was subsequently developed by a large number of workers, including the American theoretical chemist Linus Pauling at Caltech, and John C. Slater into various theories such as Molecular Orbital Theory or Valence Theory.

Beginning in 1927, researchers made attempts at applying quantum mechanics to fields instead of single particles, resulting in quantum field theories. Early workers in this area include P.A.M. Dirac, W. Pauli, V. Weisskopf, and P. Jordan. This area of research culminated in the formulation of quantum electrodynamics by R.P. Feynman, F. Dyson, J. Schwinger, and S. Tomonaga during the 1940s. Quantum electrodynamics describes a quantum theory of electrons, positrons, and the electromagnetic field, and served as a model for subsequent quantum field theories.[6][7][9]


Feynman diagram of gluon radiation in quantum chromodynamics
The theory of quantum chromodynamics was formulated beginning in the early 1960s. The theory as we know it today was formulated by Politzer, Gross and Wilczek in 1975.

Building on pioneering work by Schwinger, Higgs and Goldstone, the physicists Glashow, Weinberg and Salam independently showed how the weak nuclear force and quantum electrodynamics could be merged into a single electroweak force, for which they received the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Founding experiments Edit

Thomas Young's double-slit experiment demonstrating the wave nature of light. (c1805)
Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity. (1896)
J. J. Thomson's cathode ray tube experiments (discovers the electron and its negative charge). (1897)
The study of black-body radiation between 1850 and 1900, which could not be explained without quantum concepts.
The photoelectric effect: Einstein explained this in 1905 (and later received a Nobel prize for it) using the concept of photons, particles of light with quantized energy.
Robert Millikan's oil-drop experiment, which showed that electric charge occurs as quanta (whole units). (1909)
Ernest Rutherford's gold foil experiment disproved the plum pudding model of the atom which suggested that the mass and positive charge of the atom are almost uniformly distributed. This led to the planetary model of the atom (1911).
James Franck and Gustav Hertz's electron collision experiment shows that energy absorption by mercury atoms is quantized. (1914)
Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach conduct the Stern–Gerlach experiment, which demonstrates the quantized nature of particle spin. (1920)
Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer demonstrate the wave nature of the electron[10] in the Electron diffraction experiment. (1927)
Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines confirm the existence of the neutrino in the neutrino experiment. (1955)
Clauss Jönsson's double-slit experiment with electrons. (1961)
The Quantum Hall effect, discovered in 1980 by Klaus von Klitzing. The quantized version of the Hall effect has allowed for the definition of a new practical standard for electrical resistance and for an extremely precise independent determination of the fine structure constant.
The experimental verification of quantum entanglement by Alain Aspect. (1982)
The Mach-Zehnder Interferometer experiment conducted by Paul Kwiat, Harold Wienfurter, Thomas Herzog, Anton Zeilinger, and Mark Kasevich, providing experimental verification of the Elitzur-Vadiman bomb tester, proving interaction-free measurement is possible. (1994)
See also Edit

Golden age of physics
History of quantum field theory
History of chemistry
History of the molecule
History of thermodynamics
Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics
References Edit

^ Max Born, My Life: Recollections of a Nobel Laureate, Taylor & Francis, London, 1978. ("We became more and more convinced that a radical change of the foundations of physics was necessary, i.e., a new kind of mechanics for which we used the term quantum mechanics. This word appears for the first time in physical literature in a paper of mine...")
^ M. Planck (1914). The theory of heat radiation, second edition, translated by M. Masius, Blakiston's Son & Co, Philadelphia, pages 22, 26, 42, 43.
^ Folsing, Albrecht (1997), Albert Einstein: A Biography, trans. Ewald Osers, Viking
^ McCormmach, Russell (Spring 1967), "Henri Poincaré and the Quantum Theory", Isis, 58 (1): 37–55, doi:10.1086/350182
^ Irons, F. E. (August 2001), "Poincaré's 1911–12 proof of quantum discontinuity interpreted as applying to atoms", American Journal of Physics, 69 (8): 879–884, Bibcode:2001AmJPh..69..879I, doi:10.1119/1.1356056
^ a b David Edwards,The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Synthese, Volume 42, Number 1/September, 1979, pp. 1–70.
^ a b D. Edwards, The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory: Fermions, Gauge Fields, and Super-symmetry, Part I: Lattice Field Theories, International J. of Theor. Phys., Vol. 20, No. 7 (1981).
^ Hanle, P.A. (December 1977), "Erwin Schrodinger's Reaction to Louis de Broglie's Thesis on the Quantum Theory.", Isis, 68 (4): 606–609, doi:10.1086/351880
^ S. Auyang, How is Quantum Field Theory Possible?, Oxford University Press, 1995.
^ The Davisson-Germer experiment, which demonstrates the wave nature of the electron
Further reading Edit

Bacciagaluppi, Guido; Valentini, Antony (2009), Quantum theory at the crossroads: reconsidering the 1927 Solvay conference, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 9184, arXiv:quant-ph/0609184Freely accessible, Bibcode:2006quant.ph..9184B, ISBN 978-0-521-81421-8, OCLC 227191829
Bernstein, Jeremy (2009), Quantum Leaps, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-03541-6
Cramer, JG (2015). The Quantum Handshake: Entanglement, Nonlocality and Transactions. Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-319-24642-0.
Greenberger, Daniel, Hentschel, Klaus, Weinert, Friedel (Eds.) Compendium of Quantum Physics. Concepts, Experiments, History and Philosophy, New York: Springer, 2009. ISBN 978-3-540-70626-7.
Jammer, Max (1966), The conceptual development of quantum mechanics, New York: McGraw-Hill, OCLC 534562
Jammer, Max (1974), The philosophy of quantum mechanics: The interpretations of quantum mechanics in historical perspective, New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-471-43958-4, OCLC 969760
F. Bayen, M. Flato, C. Fronsdal, A. Lichnerowicz and D. Sternheimer, Deformation theory and quantization I,and II, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.), 111 (1978) pp. 61–110, 111-151.
D. Cohen, An Introduction to Hilbert Space and Quantum Logic, Springer-Verlag, 1989. This is a thorough and well-illustrated introduction.
Finkelstein, D. (1969), "Matter, Space and Logic", Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, V: 1969, doi:10.1007/978-94-010-3381-7_4, ISBN 978-94-010-3383-1.
A. Gleason. Measures on the Closed Subspaces of a Hilbert Space, Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics, 1957.
R. Kadison. Isometries of Operator Algebras, Annals of Mathematics, Vol. 54, pp. 325–338, 1951
G. Ludwig. Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Springer-Verlag, 1983.
G. Mackey. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, W. A. Benjamin, 1963 (paperback reprint by Dover 2004).
R. Omnès. Understanding Quantum Mechanics, Princeton University Press, 1999. (Discusses logical and philosophical issues of quantum mechanics, with careful attention to the history of the subject).
N. Papanikolaou. Reasoning Formally About Quantum Systems: An Overview, ACM SIGACT News, 36(3), pp. 51–66, 2005.
C. Piron. Foundations of Quantum Physics, W. A. Benjamin, 1976.
Hermann Weyl. The Theory of Groups and Quantum Mechanics, Dover Publications, 1950.
A. Whitaker. The New Quantum Age: From Bell's Theorem to Quantum Computation and Teleportation, Oxford University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-958913-5
Stephen Hawking. The Dreams that Stuff is Made of, Running Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-76-243434-3
A. Douglas Stone. Einstein and the Quantum, the Quest of the Valiant Swabian, Princeton University Press, 2006. Print.
Richard P. Feynman. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006. Print.
External links Edit


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:48 pm 
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Some Welsh posters would probably like to bombard your Irish rugby thread with C+P spam.


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what if all posters did this, the place would be unusable. Imagine if posters did this it the Irish rugby thread.


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Dai another day wrote:
Some Welsh posters would probably like to bombard your Irish rugby thread with C+P spam.

It would be easy to do. You could make it unreadable each time in a few seconds.


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Stamp collecting

Le Philateliste by François Barraud (1929).
Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects. It is related to philately which is the study of stamps. It has been one of the world's most popular hobbies since the late nineteenth century with the rapid growth of the postal service.[1] Stamp collecting proved to be an almost perfect hobby for collectors because there was a never ending stream of new stamps as each country sought to advertise its distinctiveness through its stamps. Because some stamps became rare, a thriving international trade in stamps was created. While stamp collectors are of all ages, it has been particularly popular hobby among children, many of whom continued the hobby as adults.[citation needed]

Contents [hide]
1 Collecting
2 History
3 Equipment
4 Acquiring stamps
5 Collecting specialties
6 Organizations
7 Rare stamps
8 Some of the most valuable stamps in the world
9 Catalogues
10 Famous collectors
11 See also
12 References and sources
13 Further reading
14 External links
Collecting[edit]
Stamp collecting is generally accepted as one of the areas that make up the wider subject of philately, which is the study of stamps. A philatelist may, but does not have to, collect stamps. It is not uncommon for the term philatelist to be used to mean a stamp collector. Many casual stamp collectors accumulate stamps for sheer enjoyment and relaxation without worrying about the tiny details. The creation of a large or comprehensive collection, however, generally requires some philatelic knowledge and will usually contain areas of philatelic studies.

Postage stamps are often collected for their historical value and geographical aspects and also for the many subjects depicted on them, ranging from ships, horses, and birds to kings, queens and presidents.[2]

Stamp collectors are an important source of income for some countries who create limited runs of elaborate stamps designed mainly to be bought by stamp collectors. The stamps produced by these countries may exceed their postal needs, but may also feature attractive topical designs that many collectors desire.


Queen Victoria's profile was a staple on 19th century stamps of the British Empire; here on a half-penny of the Falkland Islands, 1891.
History[edit]
It has been suggested that John Bourke, Receiver General of Stamp Dues in Ireland was the first collector. In 1774 he assembled a book of the existing embossed revenue stamps, ranging in value from 6 pounds to half a penny, as well as the hand stamped charge marks that were used with them. His collection is preserved in Dublin.[3]

Postage stamp collecting began at the same time that stamps were first issued, and by 1860 thousands of collectors and stamp dealers were appearing around the world as this new study and hobby spread across Europe, European colonies, the United States and other parts of the world.

The first postage stamp, the Penny Black, was issued by Britain in 1840 and pictured a young Queen Victoria. It was produced without perforations (imperforate) and consequently had to be cut from the sheet with scissors in order to be used. While unused examples of the Penny Black are quite scarce, used examples are quite common, and may be purchased for $20 to $200, depending upon condition.

People started to collect stamps almost immediately. One of the earliest and most notable was John Edward Gray. In 1862, Gray stated that he "began to collect postage stamps shortly after the system was established and before it had become a rage".[4]

As the hobby and study of stamps began to grow, stamp albums and stamp related literature began to surface, and by the early 1880s publishers like Stanley Gibbons made a business out of this advent.

Children and teenagers were early collectors of stamps in the 1860s and 1870s. Many adults dismissed it as a childish pursuit but later many of those same collectors, as adults, began to systematically study the available postage stamps and publish books about them. Some stamps, such as the triangular issues of the Cape of Good Hope, have become legendary.

Stamp collecting is a less popular hobby in the early 21st century than it was a hundred years ago. In 2013, the Wall Street Journal estimated the global number of stamp collectors was around 60 million.[5] Tens of thousands of stamp dealers supply them with stamps along with stamp albums, catalogues and other publications. There are also thousands of stamp (philatelic) clubs and organizations that provide them with the history and other aspects of stamps. Today, though the number of collectors is somewhat less, stamp collecting is still one of the world's most popular indoor hobbies.[6]

Equipment[edit]
A few basic items of equipment are needed to collect stamps. Stamp tongs help to handle stamps safely, a magnifying glass helps in viewing fine details and an album is a convenient way to store stamps. The stamps need to be attached to the pages of the album in some way and stamp hinges are a cheap and simple way to do this. Hinging stamps can damage them, thus reducing their value; today many collectors prefer more expensive hingeless mounts. Issued in various sizes, these are clear chemically neutral thin plastic holders that open to receive stamps and are gummed on the back so that they stick to album pages. Another alternative is a stockbook where the stamps drop into clear pockets without the need for a mount. Stamps should be stored away from light, heat and moisture or they will be damaged.

Stamps can be displayed according to the collector's wishes, by country, topic, or even by size, which can create a display pleasing to the eye. There are no rules and it is entirely a matter for the individual collector to decide. Albums can be commercially purchased, downloaded or created by the collector. In the latter cases using acid free paper provides better long-term stamp protection.


A stockbook with clear plastic pockets is one of the safest ways to store stamps. Some collectors prefer a traditional stamp album.


Clockwise from top left: hinge-mounted stamp, stamp about to be hinge-mounted, stamp damaged by a hinge, stamp hinges.


A magnifying glass.


Stamp tongs with rounded tips help to prevent damage to stamps from skin oils and rough handling.
Acquiring stamps[edit]
Many collectors ask their family and friends to save stamps for them from their mail. Although the stamps received by major businesses and those kept by elderly relatives may be of international and historical interest, the stamps received from family members are often of the definitive sort. Definitives seem mundane but, considering their variety of colours, watermarks, paper differences, perforations and printing errors, they can fill many pages in a collection.[7] Introducing either variety or specific focus to a collection can require the purchasing of stamps, either from a dealer or online. Large numbers of relatively recent stamps, often still attached to fragments or envelopes, may be obtained cheaply and easily. Rare and old stamps can also be obtained, but these can be very expensive.

Duplicate stamps are those a collector already has and are not required, therefore, to fill a gap in a collection. Duplicate stamps can be sold or traded, so they are an important medium of exchange among collectors.

Many dealers sell stamps through the Internet while others have neighborhood shops which are among the best resources for beginning and intermediate collectors. Some dealers also jointly set up week-end stamp markets called "bourses" that move around a region from week to week. They also meet collectors at regional exhibitions and stamp shows.

Collecting specialties[edit]
A worldwide collection would be enormous, running to thousands of volumes, and would be incredibly expensive to acquire. Many consider that Count Philipp von Ferrary's collection at the beginning of the 20th century was the most complete ever formed. Many collectors limit their collecting to particular countries, certain time periods or particular subjects (called "topicals") like birds or aircraft.

Some of the more popular collecting areas include:

Postage stamps – particular countries and/or time periods
Airmail stamps – stamps may be required for airmail, which is typically more expensive and has special postage rates.
Commemorative stamps – stamps to commemorate events, anniversaries, etc., on sale for a limited time.
Definitive stamps – the most common type of stamps
Postage due stamps are special stamps applied by a post office to mail bearing insufficient postage. The stamps were issued in several denominations to make up different amounts due.
Topical stamp collecting – many collectors choose to organize their philatelic collection on the theme of the stamps, covers, or postmarks. Popular topical themes are animals, dogs, cats, butterflies, birds, flowers, art, sports, Olympics, maps, Disney, scouting, space, ships, Americana (topics relating to the US), stamps on stamps, famous people, chess, Chinese new year, and many others.
Birds on stamps
Ships on stamps
Insects on stamps
People on stamps
Stamps on stamps
Postal stationery – includes government-issued postal cards, aerograms, letter card, wrappers, envelopes, etc., that have an imprinted stamp.
Sheets
Sheetlets – this is a format that is now issued regularly by postal administrations. Instead of issuing stamps in large sheets of 40, 100 or even 200 stamps, smaller sheetlets with 20 to 24 stamps are issued with a large selvedge area which may incorporate part of the stamp design or theme.
Souvenir sheets – many postal services sometimes release stamps in a format that look like a sheet with a big picture. Various parts of the picture can be torn out and used as postage stamps. See example with 10 stamps in one picture. (Souvenir sheets should be distinguished from souvenir cards, which are souvenirs of a philatelic meeting or exhibition but are not valid for postage.)
Miniature sheet – is very similar to a souvenir sheet, being in a sheetlet with a single or a number of stamps embedded in it.
Corner blocks or plate blocks – compose a block of stamps from one of the four corners of the stamp sheet. Collectors usually opt for a block of four stamps, complete with the selvage area which will sometimes have the printing details on it.
Coil Strips - Pairs or more of stamps from rolls, premium ones showing the plate number or a coil line pair which shows the seam between the edges of the plate.
Revenue stamps – stamps issued to pay taxes.
Federal Duck Stamps (stamps for duck hunting licenses, mainly U.S. with some other countries such as Canada and New Zealand)
First day covers – (FDCs) – envelopes with stamps attached and canceled on the first day that the stamp was issued. Most modern FDCs bear designs, called "cachets", related to the theme of the stamp issued.
Maximum cards – these are postcards where the stamp is on the same side as the picture and they have a close connection.
Souvenir pages – with first day canceled stamps on a page describing all design, printing and issuing details. These are similar to first day covers except that they are issued as printed sheets of paper instead of envelopes, and the specification of the stamp is printed by the official source. See picture of first souvenir page in the US.
Cinderella stamps – stamp-like labels that are not valid for postage.
Postmarks or postal markings in general.
Organizations[edit]

A large stamp show containing a bourse at which collectors and dealers meet.
There are thousands of organizations for collectors: local stamp clubs, special-interest groups, and national organizations. Most nations have a national collectors' organization, such as the American Philatelic Society in the United States. The Internet has greatly expanded the availability of information and made it easier to obtain stamps and other philatelic material. The American Topical Association (ATA) is now a part of the APS and promotes thematic collecting as well as encouraging sub-groups of numerous topics.

Stamp clubs and philatelic societies can add a social aspect to stamp collecting and provide a forum where novices can meet experienced collectors. Although such organizations are often advertised in stamp magazines and online, the relatively small number of collectors - especially outside urban areas - means that a club may be difficult to set up and sustain. The Internet partially solves this problem, as the association of collectors online is not limited by geographical distance. For this reason, many highly specific stamp clubs have been established on the Web, with international membership.[8]

Organizations such as the Cinderella Stamp Club (UK) retain hundreds of members interested in a specific aspect of collecting. Social organizations, such as the Lions Club and Rotary International, have also formed stamp collecting groups specific to those stamps that are issued from many countries worldwide that display the organization's logo.

Rare stamps[edit]
Main article: List of notable postage stamps
Rare stamps are often old and many have interesting stories attached to them. Some include:

The United States "Inverted Jenny" (which is actually a printing error)
The United States "1-cent Z grill" stamp.
The Treskilling Yellow.
The Mauritius "Post Office" stamps.
The British Guiana 1c magenta, and many others.
Some of the most valuable stamps in the world[edit]

The Three-Skilling Yellow of Sweden was sold for CHF 2.88 million (then about $2,300,000) in 1996 and again for an undisclosed amount in 2010.[9]


David Feldman sold this Blue Mauritius stamp for CHF 1,610,000 (approx. $1.1 million) in 1993.[10]


One of the first two Mauritius Post Office stamps. This orange stamp was sold for CHF 1,725,000 (approx $1.2 million) in 1993.[10]
Catalogues[edit]
Main article: Stamp catalogue
Stamp catalogues are the primary tool used by serious collectors to organize their collections, and for the identification and valuation of stamps. Most stamp shops have stamp catalogues available for purchase. A few catalogues are offered on-line, either for free or for a fee. There are hundreds of different catalogues, most specializing in particular countries or periods.

Famous collectors[edit]

John Lennon's stamp album
The stamp collection assembled by French/Austrian aristocrat Philipp von Ferrary (1850–1917) at the beginning of the 20th century is widely considered the most complete stamp collection ever formed (or likely to be formed). It included, for example, all of the rare stamps described above that had been issued by 1917. However, as Ferrary was an Austrian citizen, the collection was broken up and sold by the French government after the First World War, as war reparations. A close rival was Thomas Tapling (1855 – 1891), whose Tapling Collection was donated to the British Museum.

Several European monarchs were keen stamp collectors, including King George V of the United Kingdom and King Carol II of Romania. King George V possessed one of the most valuable stamp collections in the world and became President of the Royal Philatelic Society. His collection was passed on to Queen Elizabeth II who, while not a serious philatelist, has a collection of British and Commonwealth first day covers which she started in 1952.[11]

The 32nd President of the United States of America, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a stamp collector, he designed several American commemorative stamps during his term.[12] Late in life Ayn Rand renewed her childhood interest in stamps and became an enthusiastic collector.[13] Several entertainment and sport personalities have been known to be collectors. Freddie Mercury, lead singer of the band Queen, collected stamps as a child. His childhood stamp album is in the collection of the British Postal Museum & Archive.[14] John Lennon of The Beatles was a childhood stamp collector. His stamp album is held by the National Postal Museum.[15]

See also[edit]
Philately
The WikiBooks Worldwide Stamp Catalogue
U.S. Postage stamp locator
References and sources[edit]
Notes
Jump up ^ Vickers, Marcia (15 December 1996). "Delivery Isn't Guaranteed, but Stamps Are Turning Profits". New York Times. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
Jump up ^ "What is stamp collecting?". Learn About Stamps. 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
Jump up ^ The origin of stamp collecting in America, Part 1: How stamp collecting came to the United States
Jump up ^ Gray, John Edward, A Hand Catalogue of Postage Stamps for the use of the Collector, 1862, Robert Hardwicke, page viii Free download here.
Jump up ^ "Graph: The Wide World of Stamps". WSJ.MONEY. 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
Jump up ^ "The history of stamp collecting". eSortment. 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
Jump up ^ Klug, Janet (2012). "A limited budget can still mean unlimited fun". Linns Stamp News. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
Jump up ^ "Stamp Clubs And Philatelic Societies". Stamphelp.com. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
Jump up ^ "Rare stamp sells for record price in Geneva auction". BBC News. 22 May 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
^ Jump up to: a b Feldman, David (1993), Prices Realised for Public Auction November 1-6 November 1993, Prces Realised, Zurich: David Feldman, p. 1
Jump up ^ Courtney, Nicholas. The Queen's Stamps - The Authorised History of the Royal Philatelic Collection. London: Methuen, 2004, p.303. ISBN 0-413-77228-4
Jump up ^ "FDR–Stamp Collecting President". National Postal Museum. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
Jump up ^ "Why I Like Stamp Collecting", Minkus Stamp Journal, 1971 [1], cf. "The new Ayn Rand companion", Mimi Reisel Gladstein, p. 130, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, ISBN 0-313-30321-5
Jump up ^ "Famous Philatelists". The British Postal Museum & Archive. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
Jump up ^ "John Lennon - The Lost Album". National Postal Museum. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
Sources
Cabeen, Richard McP. (1979). Standard Handbook of Stamp Collecting. Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago. ISBN 0-690-01773-1.
Nankivell, Edward J. (2007). Stamp Collecting as a Pastime: Stanley Gibbons Philatelic Handbooks (1902). UK: Dodo Press. ISBN 1-4065-3058-1. Free download here.
Further reading[edit]
Klug, Janet. Guide to Stamp Collecting. Smithsonian/Collins. ISBN 0061341398 (Children's/Young Adult)
Watson, James. How to start Stamp Collecting. London; Stanley Gibbons. ISBN 0852596170 (Adult beginner)
Phillips, Stanley. Stamp Collecting: A guide to modern philately. Revised edition. London: Stanley Gibbons, 1983. ISBN 0-85259-047-4 (Adult beginner, more detailed but a little out of date)
External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Philately.
LearnAboutStamps.com A resource for stamp collectors
PhilaTalk.com A stamp collector forums
Caring for stamps & postal history British Postal Museum & Archive Information Sheet
Philatelic Dictionary English - German - French
StampNews.com Provides updates on new stamp issues and stamp collecting from around the world.
"Stamp Story" A 1955 information film about stamp collecting.


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You two suck too (yes I'm spoiling for a fight)


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what if all posters did this, the place would be unusable. Imagine if posters did this it the Irish rugby thread.

do it :twisted:


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Japan (Japanese: 日本 Nippon [nip̚põ̞ɴ] or Nihon [nihõ̞ɴ]; formally 日本国 About this sound Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, meaning "State of Japan") is a sovereign island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian mainland, and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the southwest.
The kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin". 日 can be read as ni and means sun, while 本 can be read as hon, or pon and means origin. Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet "Land of the Rising Sun" in reference to its Japanese name.
Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and often are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one. The population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98.5% of Japan's total population. Approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo,[16] the capital of Japan.
Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, particularly from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor.
Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma, and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism.
The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947 during the occupation by the SCAP, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, and the G20 and is considered a great power.[17][18][19] The country has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world, with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[20]
Although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget,[21] used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a very high standard of living and Human Development Index. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world.[22][23]
Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Prehistory and ancient history
2.2 Feudal era
2.3 Modern era
3 Geography
3.1 Climate
3.2 Biodiversity
3.3 Environment
4 Politics
4.1 Government
4.2 Administrative divisions
4.3 Foreign relations
5 Military
6 Economy
6.1 Economic history
6.2 Agriculture and fishery
6.3 Industry
6.4 Services
6.5 Tourism
7 Science and technology
7.1 Electronics and automotive engineering
7.2 Aerospace
7.3 Nobel laureates
8 Infrastructure
8.1 Transportation
8.2 Energy
8.3 Water supply and sanitation
9 Demographics
9.1 Population
9.2 Religion
9.3 Languages
9.4 Problems
10 Education
11 Health
12 Culture
12.1 Architecture
12.2 Art
12.3 Music
12.4 Literature
12.5 Philosophy
12.6 Cuisine
12.7 Holidays
12.8 Festivals
12.9 Sports
12.10 Media
13 See also
14 References
15 Notes
16 Further reading
17 External links
Etymology
Main article: Names of Japan
In ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭 (pronounced Wa in Japanese). It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, which is based on the earlier work Weilüe. Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning 'dwarf'.[24] The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa (和?), meaning "harmony".[25][26]
The Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means "the origin of the sun". The earliest record of the name "Nihon" appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon. Prince Shotoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself 'the Emperor of the Land in which the Sun rises'. Thus Nihon might have originated in this period. The message in Japanese addresses "The Emperor of the land where Sun rises sends a letter to the Emperor of the land where Sun sets. Are you healthy?". This letter was sent in the early period of the 7th century. The message is recorded in the official history book of the Sui dynasty.
The English word Japan possibly derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or possibly early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本 Japan is Zeppen [zəʔpən]. The old Malay word for Japan, Jepang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect, probably Fukienese or Ningpo,[27] and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Malacca in the 16th century. Early Portuguese traders then brought the word to Europe.[28] An early record of the word in English is in a 1565 letter, spelled Giapan.[29]
From the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II, the full title of Japan was Dai Nippon Teikoku (大日本帝國), meaning "the Empire of Great Japan".[30] Today the name Nippon-koku / Nihon-koku (日本国) is used as a formal modern-day equivalent simply meaning "the State of Japan"; countries like Japan whose long form does not contain a descriptive designation are generally given a name appended by the character koku (国), meaning "country", "nation" or "state".
The character nichi (日) means "sun" or "day"; hon (本) means "base" or "origin".[31] The compound means "origin of the sun" or "sunrise", and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun".[32] The reason Japan refers to itself in this way is that Japan is east of China, and from China the sun rises from Japan.
History
Main article: History of Japan
History of Japan
Naiku 01.JPG
Periods[show]
Topics[show]
Glossary Timeline
v t e
Prehistory and ancient history

Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu-tennō?), the first Emperor of Japan dated as 660 BCE.[33][34] In modern Japan, Jimmu's accession is marked as National Foundation Day on February 11
A Paleolithic culture around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the Japanese archipelago. This was followed from around 14,000 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture, who include ancestors of both the contemporary Ainu people and Yamato people,[35][36] characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture.[37] Decorated clay vessels from this period are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world. Around 300 BC, the Yayoi people began to enter the Japanese islands, intermingling with the Jōmon.[38] The Yayoi period, starting around 500 BC, saw the introduction of practices like wet-rice farming,[39] a new style of pottery,[40] and metallurgy, introduced from China and Korea.[41]
Japan first appears in written history in the Chinese Book of Han.[42] According to the Records of the Three Kingdoms, the most powerful kingdom on the archipelago during the 3rd century was called Yamataikoku. Buddhism was first introduced to Japan from Baekje, Korea and was promoted by Prince Shōtoku, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China.[43] Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710).[44]
The Nara period (710–784) of the 8th century marked an emergence of the centralized Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō (modern Nara). The Nara period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literature as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired art and architecture.[45] The smallpox epidemic of 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population.[46] In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō before relocating it to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto) in 794.
This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged, noted for its art, poetry and prose. Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem "Kimigayo" were written during this time.[47]
Buddhism began to spread during the Heian era chiefly through two major sects, Tendai by Saichō, and Shingon by Kūkai. Pure Land Buddhism (Jōdo-shū, Jōdo Shinshū) became greatly popular in the latter half of the 11th century.
Feudal era

Samurai warriors facing Mongols during the Mongol invasions of Japan; Suenaga, 1293
Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War, sung in the epic Tale of Heike, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo was appointed shogun by Emperor Go-Toba, and he established a base of power in Kamakura. After his death, the Hōjō clan came to power as regents for the shoguns. The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class.[48] The Kamakura shogunate repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281, but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. Emperor Go-Daigo was himself defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336.

Samurai could kill a commoner for the slightest insult and were widely feared by the Japanese population. Edo period, 1798
Ashikaga Takauji established the shogunate in Muromachi, Kyoto. This was the start of the Muromachi period (1336–1573). The Ashikaga shogunate achieved glory in the age of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, and the culture based on Zen Buddhism (art of Miyabi) prospered. This evolved to Higashiyama Culture, and prospered until the 16th century. On the other hand, the succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyōs), and a civil war (the Ōnin War) began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States").[49]
During the 16th century, traders and Jesuit missionaries from Portugal reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. This allowed Oda Nobunaga to obtain European technology and firearms, which he used to conquer many other daimyōs. His consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period (1573–1603). After he was assassinated in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in 1590 and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597.
Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi's son and used his position to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, he defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Tokugawa Ieyasu was appointed shogun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603, and he established the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo (modern Tokyo).[50] The Tokugawa shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyōs;[51] and in 1639, the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868).[52] The study of Western sciences, known as rangaku, continued through contact with the Dutch enclave at Dejima in Nagasaki. The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku ("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese.[53]
Modern era

Emperor Meiji (1868–1912), in whose name imperial rule was restored at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate
On March 31, 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. Subsequent similar treaties with Western countries in the Bakumatsu period brought economic and political crises. The resignation of the shogun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized state nominally unified under the Emperor (the Meiji Restoration).[54]
Adopting Western political, judicial and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. The Meiji Restoration transformed the Empire of Japan into an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea, and the southern half of Sakhalin.[55] Japan's population grew from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million in 1935.[56]

Chinese generals surrendering to the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895
World War I enabled Japan, on the side of the victorious Allies, to widen its influence and territorial holdings in Asia. The early 20th century saw a brief period of "Taishō democracy (1912–1926)" but the 1920s saw a fragile democracy buckle under a political shift towards fascism, the passing of laws against political dissent and a series of attempted coups. The subsequent "Shōwa period" initially saw the power of the military increased and brought about Japanese expansionism and militarization along with the totalitarianism and ultranationalism that are a part of fascist ideology. In 1931 Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria and following international condemnation of this occupation, Japan resigned from the League of Nations in 1933. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany, and the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers.[57] In 1941, following its defeat in the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War, Japan negotiated the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact,[58] which lasted until 1945 with the Soviet invasion of Manchuria.[59]

Japanese officials surrendering to the Allies on September 2, 1945, in Tokyo Bay, ending World War II
The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). The Imperial Japanese Army swiftly captured the capital Nanjing and conducted the Nanking Massacre.[60] In 1940, the Empire then invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan.[61] On December 7–8, 1941, Japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, British forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong and declared war on the United States and the British Empire, bringing the US and the UK into World War II in the Pacific.[62][63] After Allied victories across the Pacific during the next four years, which culminated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender on August 15.[64] The war cost Japan, its colonies, China and the war's other combatants tens of millions of lives and left much of Japan's industry and infrastructure destroyed. The Allies (led by the US) repatriated millions of ethnic Japanese from colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and restoring the independence of its conquered territories.[65] The Allies also convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East on May 3, 1946 to prosecute some Japanese leaders for war crimes. However, the bacteriological research units and members of the imperial family involved in the war were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers despite calls for the trial of both groups.[66]
In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952[67] and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. Japan later achieved rapid growth to become the second-largest economy in the world, until surpassed by China in 2010. This ended in the mid-1990s when Japan suffered a major recession. In the beginning of the 21st century, positive growth has signaled a gradual economic recovery.[68] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its recorded history; this triggered the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, one of the worst disasters in the history of nuclear power.[69]
Geography
Main articles: Geography of Japan and Geology of Japan

Japanese archipelago as seen from satellite
Japan has a total of 6,852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of East Asia. The country, including all of the islands it controls, lies between latitudes 24° and 46°N, and longitudes 122° and 146°E. The main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. Together they are often known as the Japanese archipelago.[70]
About 73 percent of Japan is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use.[8][71] As a result, the habitable zones, mainly located in coastal areas, have extremely high population densities. Japan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.[72]
The islands of Japan are located in a volcanic zone on the Pacific Ring of Fire. They are primarily the result of large oceanic movements occurring over hundreds of millions of years from the mid-Silurian to the Pleistocene as a result of the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the continental Amurian Plate and Okinawa Plate to the south, and subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Okhotsk Plate to the north. The Boso Triple Junction off the coast of Japan is a triple junction where the North American Plate, the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate meets. Japan was originally attached to the eastern coast of the Eurasian continent. The subducting plates pulled Japan eastward, opening the Sea of Japan around 15 million years ago.[73]
Japan has 108 active volcanoes. During the twentieth century several new volcanoes emerged, including Shōwa-shinzan on Hokkaido and Myōjin-shō off the Bayonnaise Rocks in the Pacific. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century.[74] The 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed over 140,000 people.[75] More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, a 9.0-magnitude[76] quake which hit Japan on March 11, 2011, and triggered a large tsunami.[69] Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes, tsunami and volcanoes due to its location along the Pacific Ring of Fire.[77] It has the 15th highest natural disaster risk as measured in the 2013 World Risk Index.[78]
Climate
Main article: Climate of Japan

Cherry blossoms of Mount Yoshino have been the subject of many plays and waka poetry

Autumn maple leaves (momiji) at Kongōbu-ji on Mount Kōya, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south. Japan's geographical features divide it into six principal climatic zones: Hokkaido, Sea of Japan, Central Highland, Seto Inland Sea, Pacific Ocean, and Ryukyu Islands. The northernmost zone, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter.[79]
In the Sea of Japan zone on Honshu's west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn. The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter seasons, as well as large diurnal variation; precipitation is light, though winters are usually snowy. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round.[79]
The Pacific coast features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season.[79]
The average winter temperature in Japan is 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) and the average summer temperature is 25.2 °C (77.4 °F).[80] The highest temperature ever measured in Japan 40.9 °C (105.6 °F) was recorded on August 16, 2007.[81] The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north until reaching Hokkaido in late July. In most of Honshu, the rainy season begins before the middle of June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.[82]
Biodiversity
Main article: Wildlife of Japan

The Japanese macaques at Jigokudani hot spring are notable for visiting the spa in the winter.
Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands.[83] Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife, including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, the Large Japanese Field Mouse, and the Japanese giant salamander.[84] A large network of national parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna as well as thirty-seven Ramsar wetland sites.[85][86] Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value.[87]
Environment
Main article: Environmental issues in Japan
In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern about the problem, the government introduced several environmental protection laws in 1970.[88] The oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan's lack of natural resources.[89] Current environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation.[90]
As of June 2015, more than 40 coal-fired power plants are planned or under construction in Japan. The NGO Climate Action Network announced Japan as the winner of its "Fossil of the Day" award for "doing the most to block progress on climate action."[91]
Japan ranks 39th in the 2016 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability.[92] As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, and host of the 1997 conference that created it, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change.[93]
Politics
Main article: Politics of Japan
Government
Main article: Government of Japan

Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko
Japan is a constitutional monarchy whereby the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister and other elected members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people.[94] Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan; Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan, stands as next in line to the Chrysanthemum Throne.

National Diet Building
Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, seated in Chiyoda, Tokyo. The Diet is a bicameral body, consisting of a House of Representatives with 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and a House of Councillors of 242 seats, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age,[95] with a secret ballot for all elected offices.[94] The Diet is dominated by the social liberal Democratic Party of Japan and the conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). The LDP has enjoyed near continuous electoral success since 1955, except for a brief 11-month period between 1993 and 1994, and from 2009 to 2012. As of September 2016, it holds 291 seats in the lower house and 122 seats in the upper house.
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government and is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the Diet from among its members. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet, and he appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State. Following the LDP's landslide victory in the 2012 general election, Shinzō Abe replaced Yoshihiko Noda as the Prime Minister on December 26, 2012[96] and became the country's sixth prime minister to be sworn in during a span of six years. Although the Prime Minister is formally appointed by the Emperor, the Constitution of Japan explicitly requires the Emperor to appoint whoever is designated by the Diet.[94]
Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki.[97] However, since the late 19th century the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on a draft of the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch; with the code remaining in effect with post–World War II modifications.[98] Statutory law originates in Japan's legislature and has the rubber stamp of the Emperor. The Constitution requires that the Emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet, without specifically giving him the power to oppose legislation.[94] Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.[99] The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes.[100]
Administrative divisions
Further information: Administrative divisions of Japan
See also: Prefectures of Japan
Japan consists of 47 prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor, legislature and administrative bureaucracy.[101] Each prefecture is further divided into cities, towns and villages.[102] The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging many of the cities, towns and villages with each other. This process will reduce the number of sub-prefecture administrative regions and is expected to cut administrative costs.[103]
Regions and Prefectures of Japan 2.svg
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Foreign relations
Main article: Foreign relations of Japan

Liancourt Rocks named as Takeshima in Japan, has become an issue known as the Liancourt Rocks dispute
Japan has diplomatic relations with nearly all independent nations and has been an active member of the UN since December 1956. Japan is a member of the G8, APEC, and "ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. Japan signed a security pact with Australia in March 2007[104] and with India in October 2008.[105] It is the world's fifth largest donor of official development assistance, donating US$9.2 billion in 2014.[106]
Japan has close ties to the United States. Since Japan's defeat by the United States in World War II, the two countries have maintained close economic and defense relations. The United States is a major market for Japanese exports and the primary source of Japanese imports, and is committed to defending the country, having military bases in Japan for that purpose.[107]
Japan contests Russia's control of the Southern Kuril Islands (including Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group) which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945.[108] South Korea's assertions concerning Liancourt Rocks (Japanese: "Takeshima", Korean: "Dokdo") are acknowledged, but not accepted by Japan.[109] Japan has strained relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (Taiwan) over the Senkaku Islands;[110] and with the People's Republic of China over the status of Okinotorishima.
Japan's relationship with South Korea has been strained due to Japan's treatment of Koreans during Japanese colonial rule, particularly over the issue of comfort women. However, in December 2015, Japan and South Korea agreed to settle the issue with Japan issuing a formal apology and taking responsibility for the issue and paying money to the surviving comfort women.[111]
Military
Main article: Japan Self-Defense Forces

JDS Kongō (DDG-173), a guided missile destroyer, launching a Standard Missile 3 anti-ballistic missile in 2007

JASDF F-2, a multirole combat aircraft

JMSDF Kongō class destroyer
Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world.[112] The country's military (the Japan Self-Defense Forces) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. Accordingly, Japan's Self-Defence force is an unusual military that has never fired shots outside Japan.[113] Japan is the highest-ranked Asian country in the Global Peace Index.[114] The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) is a regular participant in RIMPAC maritime exercises.[115] The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations; the deployment of troops to Iraq marked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II.[116] Japan Business Federation has called on the government to lift the ban on arms exports so that Japan can join multinational projects such as the Joint Strike Fighter.[117]
The 21st century is witnessing a rapid change in global power balance along with globalization. The security environment around Japan has become increasingly severe as represented by nuclear and missile development by North Korea. Transnational threats grounded on technological progress including international terrorism and cyber attacks are also increasing their significance.[118] Japan, including its Self Defense Forces, has contributed to the maximum extent possible to the efforts to maintain and restore international peace and security, such as UN peacekeeping operations. Building on the ongoing efforts as a peaceful state, the Government of Japan has been making various efforts on its security policy which include: the establishment of the National Security Council (NSC), the adoption of the National Security Strategy (NSS), and the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG).[118] These efforts are made based on the belief that Japan, as a "Proactive Contributor to Peace", needs to contribute more actively to the peace and stability of the region and the international community, while coordinating with other countries including its ally, the United States.[118]
Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States; the US-Japan security alliance acts as the cornerstone of the nation's foreign policy.[119] A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan has served as a non-permanent Security Council member for a total of 20 years, most recently for 2009 and 2010. It is one of the G4 nations seeking permanent membership in the Security Council.[120]
In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passiveness it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more responsibility for regional security. He said Japan wanted to play a key role and offered neighboring countries Japan's support.[121] In recent years, they have been engaged in international peacekeeping operations including the UN peacekeeping.[122] Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea,[123] have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society.[124] New military guidelines, announced in December 2010, will direct the JSDF away from its Cold War focus on the former Soviet Union to a focus on China, especially regarding the territorial dispute over the Senkaku Islands.[125]
Economy
Main article: Economy of Japan

The Tokyo Stock Exchange, one of the largest stock exchanges in Asia[126]

Ginza, a luxury shopping area in Tokyo
Japan is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP,[127] and the fourth largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity. As of 2014, Japan's public debt was estimated at more than 200 percent of its annual gross domestic product, the largest of any nation in the world.[128] In August 2011, Moody's rating has cut Japan's long-term sovereign debt rating one notch from Aa3 to Aa2 inline with the size of the country's deficit and borrowing level. The large budget deficits and government debt since the 2009 global recession and followed by the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 caused the rating downgrade.[129] The service sector accounts for three quarters of the gross domestic product.[130]
Japan has a large industrial capacity, and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronics, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods. Agricultural businesses in Japan cultivate 13 percent of Japan's land, and Japan accounts for nearly 15 percent of the global fish catch, second only to China.[8] As of 2010, Japan's labor force consisted of some 65.9 million workers.[131] Japan has a low unemployment rate of around four percent. Some 20 million people, around 17 per cent of the population, were below the poverty line in 2007.[132] Housing in Japan is characterized by limited land supply in urban areas.[133]
Japan's exports amounted to US$4,210 per capita in 2005. As of 2012, Japan's main export markets were China (18.1 percent), the United States (17.8 percent), South Korea (7.7 percent), Thailand (5.5 percent) and Hong Kong (5.1 percent). Its main exports are transportation equipment, motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors and auto parts.[134] Japan's main import markets as of 2012 were China (21.3 percent), the US (8.8 percent), Australia (6.4 percent), Saudi Arabia (6.2 percent), United Arab Emirates (5.0 percent), South Korea (4.6 percent) and Qatar (4.0 percent).[8]
Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries. By market share measures, domestic markets are the least open of any OECD country.[135] Junichirō Koizumi's administration began some pro-competition reforms, and foreign investment in Japan has soared.[136]
Japan ranks 27th of 189 countries in the 2014 Ease of doing business index and has one of the smallest tax revenues of the developed world. The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are relatively common in the Japanese work environment.[135][137] Japanese companies are known for management methods like "The Toyota Way", and shareholder activism is rare.[138]
Economic history
Modern Japan's economic growth began in the Edo period. Some of the surviving elements of the Edo period are roads and water transportation routes, as well as financial instruments such as futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers.[139] During the Meiji period from 1868, Japan expanded economically with the embrace of the market economy.[140] Many of today's enterprises were founded at the time, and Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia.[141] The period of overall real economic growth from the 1960s to the 1980s has been called the Japanese post-war economic miracle: it averaged 7.5 percent in the 1960s and 1970s, and 3.2 percent in the 1980s and early 1990s.[142]
Growth slowed in the 1990s during the "Lost Decade" due to after-effects of the Japanese asset price bubble and government policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Efforts to revive economic growth were unsuccessful and further hampered by the global slowdown in 2000.[8] The economy recovered after 2005; GDP growth for that year was 2.8 percent, surpassing the growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.[143]
Today Japan ranks highly for competitiveness and economic freedom. It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016.[144][145]
Agriculture and fishery
Main article: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing in Japan

A rice paddy in Aizu, Fukushima Prefecture
The Japanese agricultural sector accounts for about 1.4% of the total country's GDP.[146] Only 12% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation.[147][148] Due to this lack of arable land, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas.[149] This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an overall agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% on fewer than 56,000 square kilometres (14,000,000 acres) cultivated.
Japan's small agricultural sector, however, is also highly subsidized and protected, with government regulations that favor small-scale cultivation instead of large-scale agriculture as practiced in North America.[147] There has been a growing concern about farming as the current farmers are aging with a difficult time finding successors.[150]
Rice accounts for almost all of Japan's cereal production.[151] Japan is the second-largest agricultural product importer in the world.[151] Rice, the most protected crop, is subject to tariffs of 777.7%.[148][152]
In 1996, Japan ranked fourth in the world in tonnage of fish caught.[153] Japan captured 4,074,580 metric tons of fish in 2005, down from 4,987,703 tons in 2000, 9,558,615 tons in 1990, 9,864,422 tons in 1980, 8,520,397 tons in 1970, 5,583,796 tons in 1960 and 2,881,855 tons in 1950.[154] In 2003, the total aquaculture production was predicted at 1,301,437 tonnes.[155] In 2010, Japan's total fisheries production was 4,762,469 fish.[156] Offshore fisheries accounted for an average of 50% of the nation's total fish catches in the late 1980s although they experienced repeated ups and downs during that period.
Today, Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch,[157] prompting some claims that Japan's fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna.[158] Japan has also sparked controversy by supporting quasi-commercial whaling.[159]
Industry
Main article: Manufacturing in Japan

Toyota factory in Ohira, Miyagi Prefecture
Japan's industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5% of its GDP.[160] Japan's major industries are motor vehicles, electronics, machine tools, metals, ships, chemicals and processed foods; some major Japanese industrial companies include Toyota, Canon Inc., Toshiba and Nippon Steel.[160][161]
Japan is the third largest automobile producer in the world, and is home to Toyota, the world's largest automobile company.[162][163] The Japanese consumer electronics industry, once considered the strongest in the world, is currently in a state of decline as competition arises in countries like South Korea, the United States and China.[164][165] However, despite also facing similar competition from South Korea and China, the Japanese shipbuilding industry is expected to remain strong thanks to an increased focus on specialized, high-tech designs.[166]
Services
Main article: Trade and services in Japan
Japan's service sector accounts for about three-quarters of its total economic output.[146] Banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Mitsubishi UFJ, Mizuho, NTT, TEPCO, Nomura, Mitsubishi Estate, ÆON, Mitsui Sumitomo, Softbank, JR East, Seven & I, KDDI and Japan Airlines listed as some of the largest in the world.[167][168] Four of the five most circulated newspapers in the world are Japanese newspapers.[169] Japan Post, one of the country's largest providers of savings and insurance services, was slated for privatization by 2015.[170] The six major keiretsus are the Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Fuyo, Mitsui, Dai-Ichi Kangyo and Sanwa Groups.[171]
Tourism
Main article: Tourism in Japan

Mount Fuji, the highest peak, is considered as one of the most iconic landmarks of Japan.

Cherry blossom with Himeji Castle in the background, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Japan attracted 19.73 million international tourists in 2015 [172] and increased by 21.8% to attracted 24.03 million international tourists in 2016.[173][174][175] Tourism from abroad is one of the few promising businesses in Japan. Foreign visitors to Japan doubled in last decade and reached 10 million people for the first time in 2013, led by increase of Asian visitors. In 2008, the Japanese government has set up Japan Tourism Agency and set the initial goal to increase foreign visitors to 20 million in 2020. In 2016, having met the 20 million target, the government has revised up its target to 40 million by 2020 and to 60 million by 2030.[176][177]
Japan has 20 World Heritage Sites, including Himeji Castle, Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto and Nara.[178] Popular tourist attractions include Tokyo and Hiroshima, Mount Fuji, ski resorts such as Niseko in Hokkaido, Okinawa, riding the shinkansen and taking advantage of Japan's hotel and hotspring network.
In inbound tourism, Japan was ranked 16th in the world in 2015.[179] In 2009, the Yomiuri Shimbun published a modern list of famous sights under the name Heisei Hyakkei (the Hundred Views of the Heisei period). The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015 ranks Japan 9th out of 141 countries overall, which was the best in Asia. Japan gained relatively high scores in almost all aspects, especially health and hygiene, safety and security, cultural resources and business travel.[180]
In 2015, 19,737,409 foreign tourists visited Japan.[181]
Rank Country Total Percentage change
1 China 4,993,689 107.3%
2 South Korea 4,002,095 45.3%
3 Taiwan 3,677,075 29.9%
4 Hong Kong 1,524,292 64.6%
5 United States 1,033,258 15.9%
6 Thailand 796,731 21.2%
7 Australia 376,075 24.3%
8 Singapore 308,783 35.5%
9 Malaysia 305,447 22.4%
10 Philippines 268,361 45.7%
11 United Kingdom 258,488 17.5%
12 Canada 231,390 26.5%
Rest countries 19,737,409 47.1%
Neighbouring South Korea is Japan's most important source of foreign tourists. In 2010, the 2.4 million arrivals made up 27% of the tourists visiting Japan.[182] Chinese travelers are the highest spenders in Japan by country, spending an estimated 196.4 billion yen (US$2.4 billion) in 2011, or almost a quarter of total expenditure by foreign visitors, according to data from the Japan Tourism Agency.[183]
The Japanese government hopes to receive 40 million foreign tourists every year by 2020.[184]
Science and technology
Main article: Science and technology in Japan
Japan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly in fields related to the natural sciences and engineering. The country ranks second among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index.[185][186] Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and development budget.[187] The amount spent on research and development relative to its gross domestic product third highest in the world.[188] The country is a world leader in fundamental scientific research, having produced twenty-two Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine,[189] and three Fields medalists.[190]
Japanese scientists and engineers have contributed to the advancement of agricultural sciences, electronics, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors, life sciences and various fields of engineering. Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, possessing more than 20% (300,000 of 1.3 million) of the world's industrial robots as of 2013[191]—though its share was historically even higher, representing one-half of all industrial robots worldwide in 2000.[192] Japan boasts the third highest number of scientists, technicians, and engineers per capita in the world with 83 scientists, technicians, and engineers per 10,000 employees.[193][194][195]
Electronics and automotive engineering

A plug-in hybrid car manufactured by Toyota, one of the world's largest carmakers. Japan is the second-largest producer of automobiles in the world.[196]
The Japanese electronics and automotive manufacturing industry is well known throughout the world, and the country's electronic and automotive products account for a large share in the global market, compared to a majority of other countries. Brands such as Fujifilm, Sony, Nintendo, Panasonic, Toyota, Nissan, and Honda are internationally famous. It's estimated that 16% of the world's gold and 22% of the world's silver is contained in electronic technology in Japan.[197]
Japan has started a project to build the world's fastest supercomputer by the end of 2017.
Aerospace

The Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) at the International Space Station
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is Japan's space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008.[198] Japan's plans in space exploration include: launching a space probe to Venus, Akatsuki;[199][200] developing the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter to be launched in 2016;[201] and building a moon base by 2030.[202]
On September 14, 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) on an H-IIA (Model H2A2022) carrier rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. SELENE is also known as Kaguya, after the lunar princess of The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter.[203] Kaguya is the largest lunar mission since the Apollo program. Its purpose is to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution. It entered a lunar orbit on October 4,[204][205] flying at an altitude of about 100 km (62 mi).[206] The probe's mission was ended when it was deliberately crashed by JAXA into the Moon on June 11, 2009.[207]
Nobel laureates
Main article: List of Japanese Nobel laureates
Japan has received the most science Nobel prizes in Asia and ranked 8th in the world.[208] Japanese researchers have won several Nobel prizes. Hideki Yukawa, educated at Kyoto University, was awarded the prize for physics in 1949. Sin-Itiro Tomonaga followed in 1965. Solid-state physicist Leo Esaki, educated at the University of Tokyo, received the prize in 1973. Kenichi Fukui of Kyoto University shared the 1981 chemistry prize, and Susumu Tonegawa, also educated at Kyoto University, became Japan's first (and, as of 2007, only) laureate in physiology or medicine in 1987. Japanese chemists took prizes in 2000 and 2001: first Hideki Shirakawa (Tokyo Institute of Technology) and then Ryōji Noyori (Kyoto University). Masatoshi Koshiba (University of Tokyo) and Koichi Tanaka (Tohoku University) won in physics and chemistry, respectively, in 2002. Makoto Kobayashi, Toshihide Masukawa, and Yoichiro Nambu who is an American citizen when awarded, shared the physics prize and Osamu Shimomura also won the chemistry prize in 2008. Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, Shuji Nakamura, who is an American citizen when awarded, shared the physics prize in 2014, and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi in 2016.[209]
Infrastructure
Transportation
Main article: Transport in Japan

A JR East E5 series shinkansen (bullet train)
Japan's road spending has been extensive.[210] Its 1.2 million kilometres (0.75 million miles) of paved road are the main means of transportation.[211] As of April 2012 Japan has approximately 1,215,000 kilometres (134,000 miles) of roads made up of 1,022,000 kilometres (14,000 miles) of city, town and village roads, 129,000 kilometres (80,000 miles) of prefectural roads, 55,000 kilometres (34,000 miles) of general national highways and 8,050 kilometres (5,000 miles) of national expressways.[212][213] The Foreign Press Center/Japan cites a total length of expressways at 7,641 kilometres (4,748 miles) (fiscal 2008).[214] A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities on Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. Hokkaido has a separate network, and Okinawa Island has a highway of this type. A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and is operated by toll-collecting enterprises. New and used cars are inexpensive; car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. However, at just 50 percent of all distance traveled, car usage is the lowest of all G8 countries.[215]
Since privatisation in 1987, dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities and Japanese trains are known for their safety and punctuality.[216][217] Proposals for a new Maglev route between Tokyo and Osaka are at an advanced stage.[218]
There are 175 airports in Japan;[8] the largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's second-busiest airport.[219] The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport, Kansai International Airport and Chūbu Centrair International Airport.[220] Nagoya Port is the country's largest and busiest port, accounting for 10 percent of Japan's trade value.[221]
Energy
Main article: Energy in Japan

The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant, a nuclear plant with seven units, the largest single nuclear power station in the world
As of 2011, 46.1% of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 21.3% from coal, 21.4% from natural gas, 4.0% from nuclear power, and 3.3% from hydropower. Nuclear power produced 9.2 percent of Japan's electricity, as of 2011, down from 24.9 percent the previous year.[222] However, by May 2012 all of the country's nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some of Japan's 50 nuclear reactors to service.[223] As of November 2014, two reactors at Sendai are likely to restart in early 2015.[224] Japan lacks significant domestic reserves and so has a heavy dependence on imported energy.[225] Japan has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency.[226]
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Japan

Tokuyama Dam in Gifu Prefecture is the largest dam in Japan
The government took responsibility for regulating the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in charge of water supply for domestic use; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in charge of water resources development as well as sanitation; the Ministry of the Environment in charge of ambient water quality and environmental preservation; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in charge of performance benchmarking of utilities.[227]
Access to an improved water source is universal in Japan. 97% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities and 3% receive water from their own wells or unregulated small systems, mainly in rural areas.[228]
Access to improved sanitation is also universal, either through sewers or on-site sanitation. All collected waste water is treated at secondary-level treatment plants. All effluents discharged to closed or semi-closed water bodies, such as Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay, or Lake Biwa, are further treated to tertiary level. This applies to about 15% of waste water. The effluent quality is remarkably good at 3–10 mg/l of BOD for secondary-level treatment, well below the national effluent standard of 20 mg/l.
Water supply and sanitation in Japan is facing some challenges, such as a decreasing population, declining investment, fiscal constraints, ageing facilities, an ageing workforce, a fragmentation of service provision among thousands of municipal utilities, and the vulnerability of parts of the country to droughts that are expected to become more frequent due to climate change.
Demographics
Main articles: Demographics of Japan, Japanese people, and Ethnic issues in Japan


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you don't have the bals celestial moron


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paneer wrote:
Dai another day wrote:
Some Welsh posters would probably like to bombard your Irish rugby thread with C+P spam.

It would be easy to do. You could make it unreadable each time in a few seconds.

Don't be stupid. Anyone with sense has the taff mongs on ignore already.

P.S. try trolling that thread and see how you get on with it.


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Laurent wrote:
you don't have the bals celestial moron

he hasn't to do what. If it is acceptable here then he can surely do it just the same.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 9:55 pm 
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Uncle Fester wrote:
paneer wrote:
Dai another day wrote:
Some Welsh posters would probably like to bombard your Irish rugby thread with C+P spam.

It would be easy to do. You could make it unreadable each time in a few seconds.

Don't be stupid. Anyone with sense has the taff mongs on ignore already.

P.S. try trolling that thread and see how you get on with it.

Does that thread have any special place here?

I don't see how it is any different at all.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:00 pm 
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paneer wrote:
Uncle Fester wrote:
paneer wrote:
Dai another day wrote:
Some Welsh posters would probably like to bombard your Irish rugby thread with C+P spam.

It would be easy to do. You could make it unreadable each time in a few seconds.

Don't be stupid. Anyone with sense has the taff mongs on ignore already.

P.S. try trolling that thread and see how you get on with it.

Does that thread have any special place here?

I don't see how it is any different at all.

The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector.

Quick facts: Long title, Citation ...
Welsh Language Act 1993


United Kingdom Parliament
Long title An Act to establish a Board having the function of promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language, to provide for the preparation by public bodies of schemes giving effect to the principle that in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice in Wales the English and Welsh languages should be treated on a basis of equality, to make further provision relating to the Welsh language, to repeal certain spent enactments relating to Wales, and for connected purposes.
Citation 1993 c.38
Territorial extent England and Wales; Scotland; Northern Ireland
Dates
Royal assent 21 October 1993
Other legislation
Amended by Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Revised text of statute as amended
Close
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 had made English the only language of the law courts and other aspects of public administration in Wales. The Welsh Courts Act 1942 had given the right to use Welsh in courts providing that the Welsh speaker was under a disadvantage in having to speak English, but this was very narrowly defined by subsequent case law. The Welsh Language Act 1967, overturned these decisions and gave rise to the concept of 'equal validity' between the Welsh and English languages. As a result, Governmental Departments began preparing documents in Welsh, and following a campaign of destroying or vandalising unilingual English road signs by members of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (The Welsh Language Society), local councils were allowed to provide many bilingual signs in Wales. It was however the Welsh Language Act 1993 which established that 'in the course of public business and the administration of justice, so far as is reasonably practicable, the Welsh and English languages are to be treated on the basis of equality.'

The Act achieved three things:

setting up the Welsh Language Board, answerable to the Secretary of State for Wales, with the duty of promoting the use of Welsh and ensuring compliance with the other provisions.
giving Welsh speakers the right to speak Welsh in court proceedings.
obliging all organisations in the public sector providing services to the public in Wales to treat Welsh and English on an equal basis.
The powers given to the Secretary of State for Wales under this Act were later devolved to the National Assembly for Wales. Delegated or secondary legislation has been made under this Act by the Secretary of State, and subsequently the National Assembly requiring more public bodies to prepare what are known as Welsh Language Schemes which show their commitment to the 'equality of treatment' principle.

See also
National Assembly for Wales (Official Languages) Act 2012
References
Tap to expand
External links
Text of the Welsh Language Act 1993 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
Full text of the Welsh Language Act 1993
Campaign for a New Welsh Language Act Archived 26 September 2011
The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector.

Quick facts: Long title, Citation ...
Welsh Language Act 1993


United Kingdom Parliament
Long title An Act to establish a Board having the function of promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language, to provide for the preparation by public bodies of schemes giving effect to the principle that in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice in Wales the English and Welsh languages should be treated on a basis of equality, to make further provision relating to the Welsh language, to repeal certain spent enactments relating to Wales, and for connected purposes.
Citation 1993 c.38
Territorial extent England and Wales; Scotland; Northern Ireland
Dates
Royal assent 21 October 1993
Other legislation
Amended by Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Revised text of statute as amended
Close
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 had made English the only language of the law courts and other aspects of public administration in Wales. The Welsh Courts Act 1942 had given the right to use Welsh in courts providing that the Welsh speaker was under a disadvantage in having to speak English, but this was very narrowly defined by subsequent case law. The Welsh Language Act 1967, overturned these decisions and gave rise to the concept of 'equal validity' between the Welsh and English languages. As a result, Governmental Departments began preparing documents in Welsh, and following a campaign of destroying or vandalising unilingual English road signs by members of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (The Welsh Language Society), local councils were allowed to provide many bilingual signs in Wales. It was however the Welsh Language Act 1993 which established that 'in the course of public business and the administration of justice, so far as is reasonably practicable, the Welsh and English languages are to be treated on the basis of equality.'

The Act achieved three things:

setting up the Welsh Language Board, answerable to the Secretary of State for Wales, with the duty of promoting the use of Welsh and ensuring compliance with the other provisions.
giving Welsh speakers the right to speak Welsh in court proceedings.
obliging all organisations in the public sector providing services to the public in Wales to treat Welsh and English on an equal basis.
The powers given to the Secretary of State for Wales under this Act were later devolved to the National Assembly for Wales. Delegated or secondary legislation has been made under this Act by the Secretary of State, and subsequently the National Assembly requiring more public bodies to prepare what are known as Welsh Language Schemes which show their commitment to the 'equality of treatment' principle.

See also
National Assembly for Wales (Official Languages) Act 2012
References
Tap to expand
External links
Text of the Welsh Language Act 1993 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
Full text of the Welsh Language Act 1993
Campaign for a New Welsh Language Act Archived 26 September 2011
The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector.

Quick facts: Long title, Citation ...
Welsh Language Act 1993


United Kingdom Parliament
Long title An Act to establish a Board having the function of promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language, to provide for the preparation by public bodies of schemes giving effect to the principle that in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice in Wales the English and Welsh languages should be treated on a basis of equality, to make further provision relating to the Welsh language, to repeal certain spent enactments relating to Wales, and for connected purposes.
Citation 1993 c.38
Territorial extent England and Wales; Scotland; Northern Ireland
Dates
Royal assent 21 October 1993
Other legislation
Amended by Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Revised text of statute as amended
Close
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 had made English the only language of the law courts and other aspects of public administration in Wales. The Welsh Courts Act 1942 had given the right to use Welsh in courts providing that the Welsh speaker was under a disadvantage in having to speak English, but this was very narrowly defined by subsequent case law. The Welsh Language Act 1967, overturned these decisions and gave rise to the concept of 'equal validity' between the Welsh and English languages. As a result, Governmental Departments began preparing documents in Welsh, and following a campaign of destroying or vandalising unilingual English road signs by members of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (The Welsh Language Society), local councils were allowed to provide many bilingual signs in Wales. It was however the Welsh Language Act 1993 which established that 'in the course of public business and the administration of justice, so far as is reasonably practicable, the Welsh and English languages are to be treated on the basis of equality.'

The Act achieved three things:

setting up the Welsh Language Board, answerable to the Secretary of State for Wales, with the duty of promoting the use of Welsh and ensuring compliance with the other provisions.
giving Welsh speakers the right to speak Welsh in court proceedings.
obliging all organisations in the public sector providing services to the public in Wales to treat Welsh and English on an equal basis.
The powers given to the Secretary of State for Wales under this Act were later devolved to the National Assembly for Wales. Delegated or secondary legislation has been made under this Act by the Secretary of State, and subsequently the National Assembly requiring more public bodies to prepare what are known as Welsh Language Schemes which show their commitment to the 'equality of treatment' principle.

See also
National Assembly for Wales (Official Languages) Act 2012
References
Tap to expand
External links
Text of the Welsh Language Act 1993 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
Full text of the Welsh Language Act 1993
Campaign for a New Welsh Language Act Archived 26 September 2011
The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector.

Quick facts: Long title, Citation ...
Welsh Language Act 1993


United Kingdom Parliament
Long title An Act to establish a Board having the function of promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language, to provide for the preparation by public bodies of schemes giving effect to the principle that in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice in Wales the English and Welsh languages should be treated on a basis of equality, to make further provision relating to the Welsh language, to repeal certain spent enactments relating to Wales, and for connected purposes.
Citation 1993 c.38
Territorial extent England and Wales; Scotland; Northern Ireland
Dates
Royal assent 21 October 1993
Other legislation
Amended by Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Revised text of statute as amended
Close
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 had made English the only language of the law courts and other aspects of public administration in Wales. The Welsh Courts Act 1942 had given the right to use Welsh in courts providing that the Welsh speaker was under a disadvantage in having to speak English, but this was very narrowly defined by subsequent case law. The Welsh Language Act 1967, overturned these decisions and gave rise to the concept of 'equal validity' between the Welsh and English languages. As a result, Governmental Departments began preparing documents in Welsh, and following a campaign of destroying or vandalising unilingual English road signs by members of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (The Welsh Language Society), local councils were allowed to provide many bilingual signs in Wales. It was however the Welsh Language Act 1993 which established that 'in the course of public business and the administration of justice, so far as is reasonably practicable, the Welsh and English languages are to be treated on the basis of equality.'

The Act achieved three things:

setting up the Welsh Language Board, answerable to the Secretary of State for Wales, with the duty of promoting the use of Welsh and ensuring compliance with the other provisions.
giving Welsh speakers the right to speak Welsh in court proceedings.
obliging all organisations in the public sector providing services to the public in Wales to treat Welsh and English on an equal basis.
The powers given to the Secretary of State for Wales under this Act were later devolved to the National Assembly for Wales. Delegated or secondary legislation has been made under this Act by the Secretary of State, and subsequently the National Assembly requiring more public bodies to prepare what are known as Welsh Language Schemes which show their commitment to the 'equality of treatment' principle.

See also
National Assembly for Wales (Official Languages) Act 2012
References
Tap to expand
External links
Text of the Welsh Language Act 1993 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
Full text of the Welsh Language Act 1993
Campaign for a New Welsh Language Act Archived 26 September 2011


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:01 pm 
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Right it is clearly not any different at all. He can spam the Irish thread now fair game after this.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:02 pm 
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Casglu
Casglu eitemau swmpus​
Archebu rhagor o fagiau
Adrodd problem

Gweld popeth Gwastraff ac Ailgylchu

Ysgolion a Dysgu

Dod o hyd i ysgol
Dyddiadau tymor ysgol
Derbyn i ysgolion
Dysgu i oedolion

Gweld popeth Ysgolion a Dysgu

Llyfrgelloedd ac Archifau

Cadw ac adnewyddu
Dod o hyd i lyfrgell
eLyfrau
Ymuno â llyfrgell

Gweld popeth Llyfrgelloedd ac Archifau


Hamdden, Parciau a Diwylliant

Dod o hyd i weithgaredd
Dod o hyd i ganolfan hamdden
Aelodaethau hamdden
Dod o hyd i barc

Gweld popeth Hamdden, Parciau a Diwylliant

Parcio, Ffyrdd a Theithio


Trwyddedau parcio
Rhoi gwybod am broblem
Dirwyon traffig​
Dirwyon parcio

Gweld popeth Parcio, Ffyrdd a Theithio

Y Dreth Gyngor


Talu’ch treth gyngor
Faint ydw i'n ei dalu?
Gostyngiadau
Newidiadau i gyfrif

Gweld popeth Y Dreth Gyngor


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:04 pm 
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paneer wrote:
Right it is clearly not any different at all. He can spam the Irish thread now fair game after this.


General layout of electricity networks. Voltages and depictions of electrical lines are typical for Germany and other European systems.
Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site, or to take advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of the economies of scale. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission network.

The bulk power transmission network will move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the company that owns the local electric power distribution network).

On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage(s).

Electrical grids vary in size from covering a single building through national grids which cover whole countries, to transnational grids which can cross continents.

History
Early electric energy was produced near the device or service requiring that energy. In the 1880s, electricity competed with steam, hydraulics, and especially coal gas. Coal gas was first produced on customer’s premises but later evolved into gasification plants that enjoyed economies of scale. In the industrialized world, cities had networks of piped gas, used for lighting. But gas lamps produced poor light, wasted heat, made rooms hot and smoky, and gave off hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In the 1880s electric lighting soon became advantageous compared to gas lighting.

Electric utility companies took advantage of economies of scale and moved to centralized power generation, distribution, and system management. With long distance power transmission it became possible to interconnect stations to balance load and improve load factors.

In the United Kingdom, Charles Merz, of the Merz & McLellan consulting partnership, built the Neptune Bank Power Station near Newcastle upon Tyne in 1901, and by 1912 had developed into the largest integrated power system in Europe. Merz was appointed head of a Parliamentary Committee and his findings led to the Williamson Report of 1918, which in turn created the Electricity Supply Bill of 1919. The bill was the first step towards an integrated electricity system. The Electricity (Supply) Act of 1926 led to the setting up of the National Grid. The Central Electricity Board standardized the nation's electricity supply and established the first synchronized AC grid, running at 132 kilo volts and 50 Hertz. This started operating as a national system, the National Grid, in 1938.

In the United States in the 1920s, utilities formed joint-operations to share peak load coverage and backup power. In 1934, with the passage of the Public Utility Holding Company Act (USA), electric utilities were recognized as public goods of importance and were given outlined restrictions and regulatory oversight of their operations. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required transmission line owners to allow electric generation companies open access to their network and led to a restructuring of how the electric industry operated in an effort to create competition in power generation. No longer were electric utilities built as vertical monopolies, where generation, transmission and distribution were handled by a single company. Now, the three stages could be split among various companies, in an effort to provide fair accessibility to high voltage transmission.:21 The Energy Policy Act of 2005 allowed incentives and loan guarantees for alternative energy production and advance innovative technologies that avoided greenhouse emissions.

In France, electrification began in the 1900s, with 700 communes in 1919, and 36,528 in 1938. At the same time, the nearby networks began to interconnect: Paris in 1907 at 12kV, the Pyrénées in 1923 at 150 kV, and finally almost all of the country interconnected in 1938 at 220 kV. By 1946, the grid is the world's most dense. That year that state nationalized the industry, by uniting the private companies as Électricité de France. The frequency was standardized at 50 Hz, and the 225kV network replaces 110 and 120. From 1956, service voltage is standardized at 220 / 380V, replacing the previous 127/220V. During the 1970s, the 400kV network, the new European standard, is implemented.

Features

The wide area synchronous grids of Europe. Most are members of the European Transmission System Operators association.

The Continental U.S. power transmission grid consists of about 300,000 km (186,411 mi) of lines operated by approximately 500 companies. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) oversees all of them.

High-voltage direct current interconnections in western Europe - red are existing links, green are under construction, and blue are proposed.

Map of Japan's electricity transmission network, showing differing systems between regions. Unusually for a national grid, different regions run at completely different frequencies.
Voltage and phase
Grids are designed to supply voltages at largely constant amplitudes. This has to be achieved with varying demand, variable reactive loads, and even nonlinear loads, with electricity provided by generators and distribution and transmission equipment that are not perfectly reliable.

In a synchronous grid all the generators are connected in parallel and run not only at the same frequency but also at the same phase. For steam powered generators, each generator is maintained in this state by a local governor that regulates the driving torque by controlling the steam supply to the turbine driving it. Generation and consumption must be balanced across the entire grid, because energy is consumed almost instantaneously as it is produced. Energy is stored in the immediate short term by the rotational kinetic energy of the generators.

Although an entire grid runs at the same frequency, normally only in very small grids is the frequency fixed. More typically, the frequency of the grid is designed to vary slightly (by 1 percent or so) depending on the load on the grid. When the grid is very heavily loaded, the frequency slows, and governors adjust their generators so that more power is output (droop speed control). When the grid is lightly loaded the grid frequency runs above the nominal frequency, and this is taken as an indication by Automatic Generation Control systems across the network that generators should reduce their output.

In addition, there's often central control, which can change the parameters of the AGC systems over timescales of a minute or longer to further adjust the regional network flows and the operating frequency of the grid.

Topologies
Transmission networks are complex with redundant pathways. For example, see the map of the United States' (right) high-voltage transmission network.

The structure, or "topology" of a grid can vary depending on the constraints of budget, requirements for system reliability, and the load and generation characteristics. The physical layout is often forced by what land is available and its geology. Distribution networks are divided into two types, radial or network.

The simplest topology for a distribution or transmission grid is a radial structure. This is a tree shape where power from a large supply radiates out into progressively lower voltage lines until the destination homes and businesses are reached. However, single failures can take out entire branches of the tree.

Most transmission grids offer the reliability that more complex mesh networks provide. The expense of mesh topologies restrict their application to transmission and medium voltage distribution grids. Redundancy allows line failures to occur and power is simply rerouted while workmen repair the damaged and deactivated line.

Other topologies used are looped systems found in Europe and tied ring networks.

In cities and towns of North America, the grid tends to follow the classic radially fed design. A substation receives its power from the transmission network, the power is stepped down with a transformer and sent to a bus from which feeders fan out in all directions across the countryside. These feeders carry three-phase power, and tend to follow the major streets near the substation. As the distance from the substation grows, the fanout continues as smaller laterals spread out to cover areas missed by the feeders. This tree-like structure grows outward from the substation, but for reliability reasons, usually contains at least one unused backup connection to a nearby substation. This connection can be enabled in case of an emergency, so that a portion of a substation's service territory can be alternatively fed by another substation.

Wide area synchronous grid
Main article: Wide area synchronous grid
A wide area synchronous grid or "interconnection" is a group of distribution areas all operating with alternating current (AC) frequencies synchronized (so that peaks occur at the same time). This allows transmission of AC power throughout the area, connecting a large number of electricity generators and consumers and potentially enabling more efficient electricity markets and redundant generation. Interconnection maps are shown of North America (right) and Europe (below left).

A large failure in one part of the grid - unless quickly compensated for - can cause current to re-route itself to flow from the remaining generators to consumers over transmission lines of insufficient capacity, causing further failures. One downside to a widely connected grid is thus the possibility of cascading failure and widespread power outage. A central authority is usually designated to facilitate communication and develop protocols to maintain a stable grid. For example, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation gained binding powers in the United States in 2006, and has advisory powers in the applicable parts of Canada and Mexico. The U.S. government has also designated National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors, where it believes transmission bottlenecks have developed.

Some areas, for example rural communities in Alaska, do not operate on a large grid, relying instead on local diesel generators.

High-voltage direct current lines or variable-frequency transformers can be used to connect two alternating current interconnection networks which are not necessarily synchronized with each other. This provides the benefit of interconnection without the need to synchronize an even wider area. For example, compare the wide area synchronous grid map of Europe (above left) with the map of HVDC lines (below right).

Redundancy and defining "grid"
A town is only said to have achieved grid connection when it is connected to several redundant sources, generally involving long-distance transmission.

This redundancy is limited. Existing national or regional grids simply provide the interconnection of facilities to utilize whatever redundancy is available. The exact stage of development at which the supply structure becomes a grid is arbitrary. Similarly, the term national grid is something of an anachronism in many parts of the world, as transmission cables now frequently cross national boundaries. The terms distribution grid for local connections and transmission grid for long-distance transmissions are therefore preferred, but national grid is often still used for the overall structure.

Interconnected grid
Electric utilities across regions are many times interconnected for improved economy and reliability. Interconnections allow for economies of scale, allowing energy to be purchased from large, efficient sources. Utilities can draw power from generator reserves from a different region in order to ensure continuing, reliable power and diversify their loads. Interconnection also allows regions to have access to cheap bulk energy by receiving power from different sources. For example, one region may be producing cheap hydro power during high water seasons, but in low water seasons, another area may be producing cheaper power through wind, allowing both regions to access cheaper energy sources from one another during different times of the year. Neighboring utilities also help others to maintain the overall system frequency and also help manage tie transfers between utility regions.

Aging infrastructure
Despite the novel institutional arrangements and network designs of the electrical grid, its power delivery infrastructures suffer aging across the developed world. Contributing factors to the current state of the electric grid and its consequences include:

Aging equipment – older equipment has higher failure rates, leading to customer interruption rates affecting the economy and society; also, older assets and facilities lead to higher inspection maintenance costs and further repair and restoration costs.
Obsolete system layout – older areas require serious additional substation sites and rights-of-way that cannot be obtained in current area and are forced to use existing, insufficient facilities.
Outdated engineering – traditional tools for power delivery planning and engineering are ineffective in addressing current problems of aged equipment, obsolete system layouts, and modern deregulated loading levels.
Old cultural value – planning, engineering, operating of system using concepts and procedures that worked in vertically integrated industry exacerbate the problem under a deregulated industry.
Modern trends
As the 21st century progresses, the electric utility industry seeks to take advantage of novel approaches to meet growing energy demand. Utilities are under pressure to evolve their classic topologies to accommodate distributed generation. As generation becomes more common from rooftop solar and wind generators, the differences between distribution and transmission grids will continue to blur. Also, demand response is a grid management technique where retail or wholesale customers are requested either electronically or manually to reduce their load. Currently, transmission grid operators use demand response to request load reduction from major energy users such as industrial plants.

With everything interconnected, and open competition occurring in a free market economy, it starts to make sense to allow and even encourage distributed generation (DG). Smaller generators, usually not owned by the utility, can be brought on-line to help supply the need for power. The smaller generation facility might be a home-owner with excess power from their solar panel or wind turbine. It might be a small office with a diesel generator. These resources can be brought on-line either at the utility's behest, or by owner of the generation in an effort to sell electricity. Many small generators are allowed to sell electricity back to the grid for the same price they would pay to buy it. Furthermore, numerous efforts are underway to develop a "smart grid". In the U.S., the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 are providing funding to encourage smart grid development. The hope is to enable utilities to better predict their needs, and in some cases involve consumers in some form of time-of-use based tariff. Funds have also been allocated to develop more robust energy control technologies.

Various planned and proposed systems to dramatically increase transmission capacity are known as super, or mega grids. The promised benefits include enabling the renewable energy industry to sell electricity to distant markets, the ability to increase usage of intermittent energy sources by balancing them across vast geological regions, and the removal of congestion that prevents electricity markets from flourishing. Local opposition to siting new lines and the significant cost of these projects are major obstacles to super grids. One study for a European super grid estimates that as much as 750 GW of extra transmission capacity would be required- capacity that would be accommodated in increments of 5 GW HVDC lines. A recent proposal by Transcanada priced a 1,600-km, 3-GW HVDC line at $3 billion USD and would require a corridor wide. In India, a recent 6 GW, 1,850-km proposal was priced at $790 million and would require a wide right of way. With 750 GW of new HVDC transmission capacity required for a European super grid, the land and money needed for new transmission lines would be considerable.

Future trends
Smart Grid
The electrical grid is expected to evolve to a new grid paradigm: the smart grid, an enhancement of the 20th century electrical grid. The traditional electrical grids are generally used to carry power from a few central generators to a large number of users or customers. In contrast, the new emerging smart grid uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create an automated and distributed advanced energy delivery network.

Many research projects have been conducted to explore the concept of smart grid. According to a newest survey on smart grid, the research is mainly focused on three systems in smart grid- the infrastructure system, the management system, and the protection system.

The infrastructure system is the energy, information, and communication infrastructure underlying of the smart grid that supports

advanced electricity generation, delivery, and consumption;
advanced information metering, monitoring, and management; and
advanced communication technologies.
In the transition from the conventional power grid to smart grid, we will replace a physical infrastructure with a digital one. The needs and changes present the power industry with one of the biggest challenges it has ever faced.

A smart grid would allow the power industry to observe and control parts of the system at higher resolution in time and space. It would allow for customers to obtain cheaper, greener, less intrusive, more reliable and higher quality power from the grid. The legacy grid did not allow for real time information to be relayed from the grid, so one of the main purposes of the smart grid would be to allow real time information to be received and sent from and to various parts of the grid to make operation as efficient and seamless as possible. It would allow us to manage logistics of the grid and view consequences that arise from its operation on a time scale with high resolution; from high-frequency switching devices on a microsecond scale, to wind and solar output variations on a minute scale, to the future effects of the carbon emissions generated by power production on a decade scale.

The management system is the subsystem in smart grid that provides advanced management and control services. Most of the existing works aim to improve energy efficiency, demand profile, utility, cost, and emission, based on the infrastructure by using optimization, machine learning, and game theory. Within the advanced infrastructure framework of smart grid, more and more new management services and applications are expected to emerge and eventually revolutionize consumers' daily lives.

The protection system is the subsystem in smart grid that provides advanced grid reliability analysis, failure protection, and security and privacy protection services. The advanced infrastructure used in smart grid on one hand empowers us to realize more powerful mechanisms to defend against attacks and handle failures, but opens up new vulnerabilities. For example, National Institute of Standards and Technology pointed out that the major benefit provided by smart grid, the ability to get richer data to and from customer smart meters and other electric devices, also gives major privacy concerns, since the energy use information stored at the meter acts as an information-rich side channel. This information could be mined and retrieved by interested parties to reveal personal information such as individual's habits, behaviors, activities, and even beliefs. [citation needed]

Grid defection
As there is some resistance in the electric utility sector to the concepts of distributed generation with various renewable energy sources and microscale cogen units, several authors have warned that mass-scale grid defection is possible because consumers can produce electricity using off grid systems primarily made up of solar photovoltaic technology.

The Rocky Mountain Institute has proposed that there may be widescale grid defection. This is backed up by studies in the Midwest.

References
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Power grids.
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External links
Map of U.S. generation and transmission


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:06 pm 
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This just shows how much the Irish are butt hurt by all of this. The reaction is that on pure butt hurt. Lose the obsession with the Welsh lads.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:07 pm 
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paneer wrote:
This just shows how much the Irish are butt hurt by all of this. The reaction is that on pure butt hurt. Lose the obsession with the Welsh lads.


The daft thing is, they have a good chunk of their players on tour. About as many as they could have expected I reckon. They have nothing to whinge about really.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:08 pm 
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paneer wrote:
This just shows how much the Irish are butt hurt by all of this. The reaction is that on pure butt hurt. Lose the obsession with the Welsh lads.

Dai another day wrote:
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber.[2] In the Andes, where the species is indigenous, some other closely related species are cultivated. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish, and have since become an integral part of much of the world's food supply. It is the world's fourth-largest food crop, following maize, wheat, and rice.[3] The green leaves and green skins of tubers exposed to the light are toxic.

Wild potato species can be found throughout the Americas from the United States to southern Chile.[4] The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated independently in multiple locations,[5] but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species proved a single origin for potatoes in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex), where they were domesticated approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago.[6][7][8] Following millenia of selective breeding, there are now over a thousand different types of potatoes.[7] Over 99% of the presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile, which have displaced formerly popular varieties from the Andes.[9][10]

However, the local importance of the potato is variable and changing rapidly. It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially eastern and central Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. As of 2007, China led the world in potato production, and nearly a third of the world's potatoes were harvested in China and India.[11]

Etymology

The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain). The Spanish Royal Academy says the Spanish word is a compound of the Taíno batata and the Quechua papa (potato).[12] The name potato originally referred to a type of sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related; in many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two.[13] The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard used the terms "bastard potatoes" and "Virginia potatoes" for this species, and referred to sweet potatoes as "common potatoes".[14] Potatoes are occasionally referred to as "Irish potatoes" or "white potatoes" in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes.[14]

The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil (or a hole) prior to the planting of potatoes. The word has an unknown origin and was originally (c. 1440) used as a term for a short knife or dagger, probably related to Dutch spyd or the Latin "spad-" a word root meaning "sword"; cf. Spanish "espada", English "spade" and "spadroon". The word spud traces back to the 16th century. It subsequently transferred over to a variety of digging tools. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself.[15] The origin of the word "spud" has erroneously been attributed to a 19th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of an Unwholesome Diet (S.P.U.D.).[15] It was Mario Pei's 1949 The Story of Language that can be blamed for the word's false origin. Pei writes, "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago. Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false.[15]

Characteristics


Flowers of a potato plant

Russet potatoes
Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. In general, the tubers of varieties with white flowers have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins.[16] Potatoes are mostly cross-pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, though a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.[17]


Potato plants
After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds, also called "true potato seed", "TPS" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. Plants propagated from tubers are clones of the parent, whereas those propagated from seed produce a range of different varieties.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:10 pm 
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Jeff the Bear wrote:
paneer wrote:
This just shows how much the Irish are butt hurt by all of this. The reaction is that on pure butt hurt. Lose the obsession with the Welsh lads.


The daft thing is, they have a good chunk of their players on tour. About as many as they could have expected I reckon. They have nothing to whinge about really.

Think of it more as "targeted disciplining".

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Think of it more as "targeted disciplining".

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Think of it more as "targeted disciplining".

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Think of it more as "targeted disciplining".

Think of it more as "targeted disciplining".

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Think of it more as "targeted disciplining".

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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:10 pm 
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Jeff the Bear wrote:
paneer wrote:
This just shows how much the Irish are butt hurt by all of this. The reaction is that on pure butt hurt. Lose the obsession with the Welsh lads.


The daft thing is, they have a good chunk of their players on tour. About as many as they could have expected I reckon. They have nothing to whinge about really.

They have an obsession with Wales and can't comprehend how such a small population has serviced them with ease for 120 odd years. This will not change in either of our lifetimes and the record books will not be even for centuries at best.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:13 pm 
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Posts: 11859
paneer wrote:
This just shows how much the Irish are butt hurt by all of this. The reaction is that on pure butt hurt. Lose the obsession with the Welsh lads.


You seem strangely obsessed with butts.

Actually you just seem strange.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:13 pm 
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Posts: 20221
ovalball wrote:
paneer wrote:
This just shows how much the Irish are butt hurt by all of this. The reaction is that on pure butt hurt. Lose the obsession with the Welsh lads.


You seem strangely obsessed with butts.

Actually you just seem strange.

It's dozy. Best put him on ignore.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:20 pm 
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Posts: 11859
Bullettyme wrote:
ovalball wrote:
paneer wrote:
This just shows how much the Irish are butt hurt by all of this. The reaction is that on pure butt hurt. Lose the obsession with the Welsh lads.


You seem strangely obsessed with butts.

Actually you just seem strange.

It's dozy. Best put him on ignore.


Yes, someone mentioned that before but I'd forgotten. Surprised he's been allowed back after his previous meltdown.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:22 pm 
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Not a bad tactic at all......until you realize that Dai's retaliation could be to do the same to the Irish thread.

There will be no winners.


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PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 10:23 pm 
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LandOTurk wrote:
Not a bad tactic at all......until you realize that Dai's retaliation could be to do the same to the Irish thread.

There will be no winners.

The Irish lads claim it can't be done to them.


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